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The formal charges of C and O atoms in $C{O_2}$ are respectively:
A. 1,-1
B. -1,1
C. 2,-1
D. 0,0

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Last updated date: 24th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: Chemical bonding refers to the formation of a chemical bond between two or more atoms, molecules, or ions to give rise to a chemical compound. These chemical bonds are what keeps the atoms together in the resulting compound. Moreover, formal charge is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, assuming that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity.

Complete step by step answer:
Formal charge is used to predict the most correct structure. Now, in the question we are given $C{O_2}$ molecule. Now, let’s draw all the resonating structures.
These are the resonating structures:

Now, $C{O_2}$ is a neutral molecule with 16 valence electrons. A valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed.
Further, let us consider all the three ways possible.
First, carbon single bonded to both oxygen atoms. (Carbon+2, oxygen-1 each, so total formal charge is 0)
Second, carbon single bonded to one oxygen and double bonded to another. (Carbon= $ + 1$, oxygen double=0, oxygen single= -1, so total formal charge is 0)
Third, carbon double bonded to both oxygen atoms (carbon=0, oxygen=0 so formal charge=0
Therefore, the formal charge of the C and O atom in $C{O_2}$ molecule is zero.

Hence, option D is correct.

Note:
Carbon dioxide becomes a poisonous gas when inhaled in large amounts. It can lead to many respiratory disorders and can cause severe damage to the nervous system. $C{O_2}$ in the form of liquid and solid is used for refrigeration and cooling. It is used as an inert gas in various chemical processes. It is also used in the manufacture of casting molds in order to enhance their hardness.