## Types of Discontinuity - Properties of Discontinuous Functions

Discontinuity of a function can be defined as the point at which the continuity of a particular function cannot be defined in its current domain. While continuity of a particular function is very important in the study of Mathematics, similarly discontinuity of a function is also very important in Mathematics, its applications and in its functions. The discontinuity of a function can be defined through the set of points, discrete set along with the dense set and even with the complete domain of the function. The removable type of discontinuity is the only type of discontinuity which is fixed and can be redefined, while all other types of discontinuities are designated by the fact that the limit does not exist and cannot be redefined further.

### Discontinuity

A discontinuity if a function is referred to as the point at which a Mathematical object is discontinuous. In other words, the discontinuity is a branch cut along the negative real axis of the natural logarithm for complexes.

For the given function y = f(x), the point x=a is a point of discontinuity if the function is not continuous at this point.

A Function is Called Discontinuous at a Point if any of the Following Situations take Place:

When the function is not defined at the given point.

When the function has no limit at the given point.

When the function is defined and it has a limit at that point. However, the value of the function is not equal to the value of the limit.

Continuity and discontinuity of a function can be explained with the help of the following example:

A function f(x) can be said as continuous at a particular point of x =a, if

lim xa- f(x) = lim xa+ f(x) = f(a)

In the above equation, the function f(x) can be said to be continuous at the particular set of points only when the limiting value of the given function is equal to the value of f(a), and the function is said to be continuous at the point of x =a.

But the function is said to be discontinuous at the point x =a, while having the following conditions:

If the limiting value of xa- f(x) and the limiting value of xa+ f(x) exist but are not having the same value, then the function is said to be discontinuous.

If the limiting value of xa- f(x) and the limiting value of xa+ f(x) exist and have the same value but are not equal to the value of f(a) then the function is said to be discontinuous.

At least one or more than one of the limits does not exist then also the function is said to be discontinuous.

If the function f(a) is not defined, then in this condition the function is said to be discontinuous.

Every rational number is continuous except for having its denominator 0, as it becomes discontinuous with the denominator being 0.

### Some Properties of a Function Being Discontinuous

There are many properties which show a function to be discontinuous but two most important properties include as follows:

The limit of the function at a discontinuous point and even in the most discontinuous function is undefined. However, this is not true in some cases as the limit can be redefined but still it is said to be discontinuous.

For all the cases, the function can break-off at a particular point or at multiple points as the discontinuous functions have points at which they break-off and picked up from another location.

### Types of Discontinuities

Various types of discontinuities can occur in the function which can be easily distinguished between one another at a given function f. This can be shown as follows:

1. Removable Discontinuity

Missing Point Discontinuity

Isolated Point Discontinuity

2. Non- Removable Discontinuity

Finite Type Discontinuity

Infinite Type Discontinuity

Oscillatory Discontinuity

1. Removable Discontinuity:

Removable discontinuity is a type of discontinuity in which the limit of a function f(x) certainly exists but has the problem of either having the different value of both the function f(x) and f(a) or it does not have a defined value of the function f(a). But in removable discontinuity, there is a possibility of having the value of a function and the value of limit equal to each other at a given particular point i.e. lim xa f(x) =f(a).

The removable discontinuity can be easily explained with the help of the following example;

When the function f(x) = x +−x is redefined in such a way that it becomes continuous for ∈ (0, 2) then this type of discontinuity is referred to as removable discontinuity.

Solution-

Here lim x→1 f(x) = -1 but with f(a) = 0

Hence, f(x) consists of a removable discontinuity at point x = 1.

To remove this discontinuity, we define f(x) as follows:

f(x) =x +−x−x, x ∈ (0, 1) U (1, 2)

f(x) = -1

Where, x = 1.

Now, the function f(x) is continuous for x ∈ (0, 2).

This removable type of discontinuity can be further divided into types which are described as missing point type and isolated point type of discontinuity.

Missing Point Discontinuity;

The missing point discontinuity is that type of discontinuity in which the limit of the function exists at a particular point ‘a’ but the function f(a) is not defined at that particular point ‘a’. This type of missing point discontinuity can be explained with the help of the following example:

Example-

To find the value of missing point discontinuity in the function f(x) = (x2 - 4) / (x – 2), where x ≠ 2, we can look through the following graph:

(Image will be uploaded soon)

Through the graph shown above, it is easily visible that f(2) is not defined and hence the value of missing point of discontinuity of f(x) is at the point x = 2.

Isolated Point Discontinuity;

The isolated point discontinuity is that type of discontinuity, in which the limit of the function f(x) exists at the particular point ‘a’ along with the function f(a) which is also defined at that particular point ‘a’, but the values of both the terms are not equal i.e.

lim xa f(x) ≠ f(a).

Example-

Through the following example, we can find out the value of isolated point type of discontinuity in any function;

f(x) = sgn (cos 2x – 2sin x + 3),

f(x) = sgn (2 (2 + sin x)(1 – sin x)) = 0, if x = 2nπ + π/2

And, f(x) = sgn (2 (2 + sin x)(1 – sin x)) = +1, if x ≠ 2nπ + π/2

Through the above given example we can say that the isolated point is at x=0, in which discontinuity occurs as x = 2nπ + π/2.

2. Non-Removable Discontinuity:

Non-removable discontinuity is the type of discontinuity in which the limit of the function does not exist at a given particular point i.e. lim xa f(x) does not exist. We can simply say that the value of f(a) at the function with x = a (which is the point of discontinuity) may or may not exist but the limit xa f(x) does not exist. This non-removable type of discontinuities can be further divided into three types which are finite type, infinite type and oscillatory type of discontinuities.

Finite Type Discontinuity;

In this type of discontinuity, despite of finitely existing f(a), the function can be either equal to lim xa- f(x) or lim xa+ f(x), as both the sides of a function including {lim xa- f(x) & lim xa+ f(x)} are not equal. This type of function having the non-negative difference between the two limits can be said as a jump of discontinuity. This type of discontinuity can be easily explained with the help of the following examples:

Example-

In the function f(x) =x, where x is the greatest integer < x.

Take x = 1, where 1 is some integer.

In which, RHL = lim x→1+ f(x) = 1 and,

LHL = lim x→a- f(x) = 1-1

This shows that both RHL and LHL exist and have some finite value but are not equal to each other.

(Image will be uploaded soon)

In the figure shown above, the two points show the jump of discontinuity which is having finite value in a finite interval. It can also be stated as a function having a finite number of jumps in the given finite amount of interval can be called a piecewise continuous function.

Infinite Type Discontinuity;

Infinite type of discontinuity is that type of discontinuity in which either RHL or LHL, one of the limits tends to move to infinity. In this type of discontinuity, both lim xa f(x) and f(a) do not exist, having one of the limits till infinity. The infinite discontinuity can be explained with the help of the following example:

Example-

For, f(x) = 1/ (x - 4), where f(4) is undefined.

1/ (x – 4) -∞, for x 4-

And, 1/ (x 4) ∞, for x 4+

From the above example, it is clear that x = 4 is the point of discontinuity occurring at ∞, since both sides of the line x = 4 tends to ∞.

Oscillatory Type Discontinuity;

Oscillatory type of discontinuity is the type of discontinuity in which limits oscillate between two values which are finite. It can be divided into two types as, if f(a) is undefined at a function f having an oscillatory finite function f(x) x a then, x = a can be said as the point of finite oscillatory discontinuity. While, in the case of an oscillatory infinite function f(x) x a, then x = a can be called as the point of infinite oscillatory discontinuity.

### Difference Between Removable and Non-Removable Discontinuity

Removable discontinuity is primarily a hole in a graph, on the other hand,non-removable discontinuity is either a jump discontinuity or an infinite discontinuity. The function can be redefined at a particular point to make it continuous in case of removable discontinuity. If a discontinuity of a function has a limit then it is called a removable discontinuity. On the other hand, if discontinuity of a function lacks a limit, it is called non - removable discontinuity. If the function is rendered by adjusting the value of a function at a point of discontinuity, the discontinuity is referred to as a removable discontinuity or else it will be a non - removable discontinuity.

### Steps to Find the Point of Discontinuity

The following are the steps to find the point of discontinuity.

First, it is required to obtain the equation of the function. It can be done by canceling the common factor from the numerator and the denominator if we find one.

Then, rewrite the expression of the denominator as an equation set to zero.

And at last, solve the equation of the denominator.

## FAQs on Types of Discontinuities IIT JEE

**1. What is continuity?**

Graphs of some functions can be drawn without lifting the pencil from the paper. The property which represents this characteristic is called continuity.

A function f(x)f(x) is continuous at a point where x=cx=c when the following three conditions are satisfied.

The function exists at x=cx=c. (In other words, f(c)f(c) is a real number.)

The limit of the function exists at x=cx=c. (That is, limx→cf(x)limx→cf(x) is a real number.)

The two values are equal. (That is, limx→cf(x)=f(c)limx→cf(x)=f(c).)

**2. In which situations can discontinuity apply?**

The non-continuous functions f(x) that are not continuous at a point of its domain D are termed as a point of discontinuity of the function. i.e. in a graph, if the functions are not connected to each other in a graph, they are referred to as a discontinuous function.

The discontinuity can be because of the following situations:

If both the right-hand limit and the left-hand limit of a function do not exist or maybe any one of them does not exist.

If both the right-hand limit and the left-hand limit do exist but they are not equal.

If either of the two right-hand limits and the left-hand limit or maybe both are not equal to the function f(x).

**3. Explain classification of discontinuity?**

Discontinuities can be classified as infinite, jump, infinite, removable, endpoint, or mixed. The other types of discontinuities are characterized on the basis of the fact that the limit does not exist.

**Infinite Discontinuities:**Discontinuity of a function has infinite both one-sided limits.

**Jump Discontinuities:**Discontinuity of a function has both one-sided limits, but they differ in values.

**Removable discontinuities:**Discontinuity of a function has both one-sided limits, and they can be fixed by re-defining the function.

**Endpoint Discontinuities:**Discontinuity of a function has only one of the one-sided limits.

**Mixed:**The function has at least one of the one-sided limits which does not exist.

**4. Where can I get a detailed explanation of discontinuity and types of discontinuity?**

In Maths, limit and continuity are important concepts. A limit of a function is that a function that approaches as the independent variable of the function approaches a given value. A function can either be continuous or discontinuous. Vedantu has provided a detailed explanation of discontinuity and types of discontinuity by covering important topics such as discontinuity, Types of Discontinuity, Properties of Discontinuous Functions, respective examples and FAQs to help students gain thorough understanding of Types of Discontinuities. Students can browse Vedantu.com and get more such explanations of Maths subjects.

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