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Difference Between Sequence and Series for JEE Main 2024

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Last updated date: 17th Jul 2024
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Arithmetic Geometric Harmonic Fibonacci Sequence: Introduction

To differentiate between sequence and series, first we need to deal with some questions, such as, “What is sequence?” and “What is series?”. While sequences and series are interconnected, it is important to understand the key differences between them to effectively comprehend their applications and solve mathematical problems. In this article, we will gain some knowledge about the difference between sequence and series, exploring their definitions, properties, and real-world applications. In the meantime, we will grasp the knowledge of arithmetic geometric harmonic Fibonacci sequences.


Category:

JEE Main Difference Between

Content-Type:

Text, Images, Videos and PDF

Exam:

JEE Main

Topic Name:

Difference Between Sequence and Series

Academic Session:

2024

Medium:

English Medium

Subject:

Mathematics

Available Material:

Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics


What is Sequence?

A sequence is a fundamental concept in mathematics that refers to an ordered list of numbers, objects, or events following a specific pattern or rule. Each element in a sequence is associated with a unique position or index. The terms of a sequence can be numbers, such as integers or real numbers, or they can be objects, variables, or even functions. Some characteristics of sequences are listed below:


  • Elements and Terms: A sequence is composed of individual elements, also known as terms. Each term in a sequence is identified by its position or index. For example, a sequence might be denoted as {a₁, a₂, a₃, ...}, where a₁ represents the first term, a₂ represents the second term, and so on.


  • Finite and Infinite Sequences: A sequence can be either finite or infinite. A finite sequence has a definite number of terms, while an infinite sequence continues indefinitely.


  • Patterns and Rules: Sequences exhibit specific patterns or rules that govern the relationship between the terms. These patterns can be expressed through mathematical formulas, recursive formulas, or explicit descriptions.


  • Arithmetic Sequences: In an arithmetic sequence, each term is obtained by adding a constant difference, known as the common difference, to the preceding term. For example, the sequence {2, 5, 8, 11, ...} is an arithmetic sequence with a common difference of 3.


  • Geometric Sequences: In a geometric sequence, each term is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant ratio, known as the common ratio. For example, the sequence {2, 6, 18, 54, ...} is a geometric sequence with a common ratio of 3.


  • Recursive Sequences: Some sequences are defined recursively, where each term is obtained by using one or more previous terms. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is a famous recursive sequence where each term is the sum of the two preceding terms (e.g., 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13...).


  • Convergence and Divergence: The concept of convergence and divergence becomes relevant in infinite sequences. A sequence is said to converge if its terms approach a specific value as the index increases. If the terms do not converge to a specific value, the sequence is said to diverge.


Sequences find application in various branches of mathematics, including calculus, number theory, probability, and computer science.


What is Series?

The sum of the elements of a sequence is known as a series. It involves adding up all the sequence elements, resulting in a single value. Series provides a way to study the cumulative effect of adding terms together. Some characteristics of series are listed below:


  • Partial Sums: A series is typically expressed as the sum of a sequence up to a certain term, known as a partial sum. For example, if we have the sequence {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, the partial sums can be given by,

The partial sum up to 1st term is 1.

The partial sum up to 2nd term is 1 + 2 = 3.

The partial sum up to 3rd term is 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, and so on.

  • Infinite Series: A series with an infinite number of terms is known as an infinite series. It represents the sum of all the terms in an infinite sequence. For example, the series 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + ... is an infinite series.

  • Convergent Series: If the sum of its terms approaches a specific finite value as the number of terms increases then the series is known as convergent series. The sum to which a convergent series converges is called the limit or sum of the series.

  • Divergent Series: A series is said to diverge if the sum of its terms does not approach a specific finite value. Divergent series can exhibit various behaviors, such as growing without bound or oscillating.

  • Convergence Tests: Various tests exist to determine the convergence or divergence of an infinite series. These include the ratio test, the comparison test, the integral test, and the alternating series test, among others.

  • Geometric Series: A geometric series is a specific type of series in which each term is obtained by multiplying the previous term by a common ratio. The sum of a geometric series can be computed using the formula:

Sn = [a1(rn-1)]/(r-1)

Here, Sn = The partial sum of the geometric series up to the nth term.

a1 = First term.

r = Common ratio. 

  • Arithmetic Series: A series in which each term is obtained by adding a constant difference to the previous term is known as an arithmetic series. The partial sum of an arithmetic series can be calculated by:

Sn = (n/2)[2a1+(n-1)d]

Here, Sn = The partial sum of the arithmetic series up to the nth term.

a1 = First term.

d = Common difference.


Series are extensively used in calculus to analyze functions, approximate values, and solve differential equations.


Difference Between Sequence and Series

S. No

Category

Sequences

Series

1.

Definition

A sequence is a fundamental concept in mathematics that refers to an ordered list of numbers, objects, or events following a specific pattern or rule.

The sum of the elements of a sequence is known as a series.

2.

Nature

A sequence is composed of individual elements, also known as terms.

It involves adding up all the sequence elements, resulting in a single value.

3.

Example

In the sequence {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, the terms are 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.

A series consists of the sum of these terms. In the case of the mentioned sequence, the series would be 30, which is the sum of all the terms.

4.

Applications

Sequences are commonly studied in their own right, exploring their patterns, properties, and behaviors.

Series are often studied in relation to sequences. They are essential in calculus, analysis, and applied mathematics, as they allow for the analysis of cumulative sums and the concept of convergence.

5.

Notation

Sequences are typically denoted using braces { } or brackets [ ], with the terms listed in order, often accompanied by an index or subscript. For instance, {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} represents a sequence.

Series are usually represented using summation notation. For example, ∑(from n=1 to 5) n represents the sum of the terms from 1 to 5, resulting in 15.


Summary

A sequence is an ordered list of elements, while a series is the sum of the terms of a sequence. Sequences focus on the individual elements and their patterns, while series emphasizes the cumulative sum obtained by adding those elements. Understanding the distinction between sequence and series is crucial for tackling various mathematical problems and applications.

FAQs on Difference Between Sequence and Series for JEE Main 2024

1. What is the Fibonacci sequence?

The Fibonacci sequence is a recursive sequence where each term is the sum of the two preceding terms (e.g., 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13...).

2. Write the formula for the geometric series.

The sum of a geometric series can be computed using the formula:

Sn = [a1(rn-1)]/(r-1)

Here, Sn = The partial sum of the geometric series up to the nth term.

a1 = First term.

r = Common ratio.

3. What are some tests for determining the convergence of an infinite series?

Various tests exist to determine the convergence or divergence of an infinite series. These include the ratio test, the comparison test, the integral test, and the alternating series test, among others.

4. Define an arithmetic sequence.

In an arithmetic sequence, each term is obtained by adding a constant difference, known as the common difference, to the preceding term. For example, the sequence {2, 5, 8, 11, ...} is an arithmetic sequence with a common difference of 3.

5. Write the formula for the arithmetic series.

The sum of an arithmetic series can be calculated using the formula:

Sn = (n/2)[2a1+(n-1)d]

Here, Sn = The partial sum of the arithmetic series up to the nth term.

a1 = First term.

d = Common difference.