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Difference Between Even and Odd Functions for JEE Main 2024

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Last updated date: 18th May 2024
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What is Even and Odd Functions: Introduction

To differentiate between even and odd functions: An even function is defined as a function that satisfies the property f(x) = f(-x) for every value of x in its domain. This means that the graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. In other words, if you reflect the graph across the y-axis, it remains unchanged. On the other hand, an odd function is a function that satisfies the property f(x) = -f(-x) for all x in its domain. Consequently, the graph of an odd function exhibits symmetry about the origin; if you rotate the graph 180 degrees around the origin, it retains its shape. Read further for more understanding. 


Category:

JEE Main Difference Between

Content-Type:

Text, Images, Videos and PDF

Exam:

JEE Main

Topic Name:

Difference Between Even and Odd Functions

Academic Session:

2024

Medium:

English Medium

Subject:

Mathematics

Available Material:

Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics


Defining Even Functions

An even function is a mathematical function that satisfies the property f(x) = f(-x) for all values of x in its domain. In simpler terms, it means that if you replace x with its negative counterpart in the function, the output remains the same. Geometrically, the graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. This symmetry implies that the function has equal values for corresponding positive and negative inputs. Even functions are characterized by having a centerline symmetry and tend to exhibit balanced behavior around the y-axis. Examples of even functions include cosine, exponential functions with even exponents, and polynomials with even powers. The characteristics of even functions are: 


  • Symmetry: An even function exhibits symmetry with respect to the y-axis. If (x, y) is a point on the graph of the function, then (-x, y) is also a point on the graph.

  • Even powers: Even functions often involve even powers of the variable. For example, functions like f(x) = x2 or f(x) = x4 are even functions. The exponent even ensures that the function satisfies the property f(x) = f(-x).

  • Centerline symmetry: The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y-axis, which means that the function has equal values for corresponding positive and negative inputs.

  • Symmetric behavior: Even functions tend to exhibit balanced behavior around the y-axis. For instance, if f(x) is an even function and f(2) = 4, then f(-2) would also be equal to 4.

  • Even Fourier series coefficients: When an even function is represented using a Fourier series, all the coefficients corresponding to the sine terms are zero, while the coefficients for the cosine terms are non-zero.


Defining Odd Functions

An odd function is a mathematical function that satisfies the property f(x) = -f(-x) for all values of x in its domain. In simpler terms, if you replace x with its negative counterpart in the function, the output is the negative of the original output. Geometrically, the graph of an odd function exhibits symmetry about the origin. This symmetry implies that the function has equal but opposite values for corresponding positive and negative inputs. Odd functions are characterized by having a rotational symmetry of 180 degrees around the origin. Examples of odd functions include sine, tangent, and cubic functions with odd powers. The characteristics of odd functions are:


  • Symmetry: An odd function exhibits symmetry with respect to the origin. If (x, y) is a point on the graph of the function, then (-x, -y) is also a point on the graph.

  • Odd powers: Odd functions often involve odd powers of the variable. For example, functions like f(x) = x3 or f(x) = x5 are odd functions. The exponent being odd ensures that the function satisfies the property f(x) = -f(-x).

  • Origin-centered symmetry: The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin, meaning that the function has equal but opposite values for corresponding positive and negative inputs.

  • Anti-symmetric behavior: Odd functions exhibit anti-symmetric behavior with respect to the y-axis. For instance, if f(x) is an odd function and f(2) = -4, then f(-2) would be equal to 4.

  • Zero at the origin: Odd functions always pass through the origin, as f(0) = 0 by definition. This property distinguishes them from even functions.

  • Odd Fourier series coefficients: When an odd function is represented using a Fourier series, all the coefficients corresponding to the cosine terms are zero, while the coefficients for the sine terms are non-zero.


Even and Odd Functions Differences

S.No

Category 

Even Functions

Odd Functions

1

Definition

f(x) = f(-x) for all x in the domain

f(x) = -f(-x) for all x in the domain

2

Symmetry

Symmetric about the y-axis (centerline symmetry)

Symmetric about the origin (rotational symmetry)

3

Graph

Mirror image across the y-axis

Rotational symmetry of 180 degrees around the origin

4

Powers

Even powers of x (e.g., x², x⁴)

Odd powers of x (e.g., x³, x⁵)

5

Zero at

f(0) is always defined and non-zero

f(0) is always equal to zero

6

Fourier Series

Non-zero coefficients for cosine terms

Non-zero coefficients for sine terms


These distinctions highlight the contrasting properties and behaviors of even and odd functions, providing a clear understanding of their fundamental differences. Now, after reading this article you can easily differentiate between even and odd functions. 


Summary 

Even functions are symmetric with respect to the y-axis. Mathematically, a function f(x) is even if and only if f(-x) = f(x) for all x in the function's domain. This means that if you reflect an even function across the y-axis, it remains unchanged. Odd functions, on the other hand, are symmetric about the origin. Mathematically, a function f(x) is odd if and only if f(-x) = -f(x) for all x in the function's domain. When you reflect an odd function across the origin, the function is inverted and retains its shape. 

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FAQs on Difference Between Even and Odd Functions for JEE Main 2024

1. What is the symmetry property of odd functions?

The symmetry property of odd functions is defined as follows: If a function f(x) is odd, then for every value x in its domain, the function satisfies the property f(x) = -f(-x). Geometrically, this means that the graph of an odd function exhibits symmetry about the origin. In other words, if you rotate the graph of an odd function 180 degrees around the origin, it remains unchanged. This symmetry implies that the function has equal but opposite values for corresponding positive and negative inputs. 

2. How are even functions defined mathematically?

Even functions are defined mathematically as functions that satisfy the property f(x) = f(-x) for all values of x in their domain. In other words, an even function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. This symmetry can be expressed by stating that the function's value at any positive x is equal to its value at the corresponding negative x. Mathematically, this property ensures that the function has an even exponent, such as x2, x4, or cos(x2), where the powers of x are even. 

3. How do even functions behave with respect to the y-axis?

Even functions exhibit symmetry with respect to the y-axis. This means that if you reflect an even function across the y-axis, the function remains unchanged. In other words, for an even function f(x), the values of f(x) and f(-x) are equal for all x in the function's domain. Geometrically, this symmetry implies that the graph of an even function is identical on both sides of the y-axis. 

4. Can even and odd functions be composed together?

Yes, even and odd functions can be composed together. When an even function is composed of an odd function, the resulting function can have various properties depending on the specific functions involved. In some cases, the composition may yield an even function, an odd function, or a function that neither retains the evenness nor oddness. The behavior of the composed function depends on how the even and odd properties interact and combine. 

5. How do even and odd functions relate to symmetry analysis?

Even and odd functions are closely connected to symmetry analysis. They provide a framework for studying and analyzing the symmetrical properties of functions. Even functions exhibit symmetry with respect to the y-axis, while odd functions exhibit symmetry about the origin. By identifying the evenness or oddness of a function, we can leverage these properties to simplify calculations, identify patterns, and analyze the behavior of the function. The study of even and odd functions allows for a deeper understanding of symmetry and aids in various mathematical and scientific applications involving symmetry analysis.