Have you encountered a minor shock when touching certain gadgets that are in use? These shocks can be harmful at times and cause serious problems. It is generally advisable to have the building adequately earthed to avoid mishaps.
Earthing is the process of sharing charges with the earth. Earthing is a basic method for preventing current leakage and thereby protecting equipment from electrical damage. Grounding is another safety procedure that covers the entire power system from failure and is mostly used to balance the load when the electric system overloads. Now let us go through the article and know earthing and grounding in detail.
What is Earthing?
Earthing is the practice of protecting against unanticipated spikes and bursts of electricity that can harm both appliances and people. As a result, we must comprehend the concept of electric potential. The connection of non-current carrying elements of the equipment to the soil is referred to as earthing.
When a malfunction occurs in the system, the potential of the non-current section of the equipment increases. And anyone who touches the body of the device may be electrocuted. This earthing releases the current leakage to the earth. We can avoid electric shock this way. It also shields our household appliances from lightning strikes. To achieve earthing, we must link the installation's components to the earth via an earth conductor or electrode. It is buried in the ground some distance below ground level.
Importance of Earthing:
Earthing is a critical component of electrical installation and must be performed in accordance with electrical codes. The earthing system must be tested on a regular basis to verify its correctness and readiness. The necessity of earthing cannot be overstated for the following reasons.
Earthing shields employees from electric shock.
Because the fault current goes through the least impedance path of the earthing system and the potential falls to zero, earthing protects the equipment from excessive voltage induced by a fault, transient, or lightning.
Earthing reduces the risk of fire.
What is Grounding?
It is similar to earthing in that it is used to protect electrical devices from inadvertent currents. To connect the appliance, the main live wire is connected to the power source, but the other portion of the cable is led under the earth. The current-carrying portion is directly connected to the ground during the grounding operation.
Grounding, in this way, offers a return path for the leakage current, protecting the power system equipment from harm. When a failure occurs in the equipment, the current in all three phases becomes unbalanced. The grounding protects the equipment and increases service reliability.
Importance of Grounding:
Assume an electrical problem, such as a lightning strike or a power surge, occurs in an area where there is no grounding. When the metal components get electrically energized, they operate as a conductive surface. When a person inadvertently contacts these components, their body offers a channel for the current to the earth, stunning them in the process.
A good grounding system ensures:
From the equipment to the power source, circuits have an effective return path.
In the event of an electrical fault, low resistance is provided to trip or short-circuit a breaker.
Metallic components are electrically connected in order to prevent a voltage connection between them.
The establishment and maintenance of a zero-voltage reference point
Difference Between Earthing and Grounding:
The key difference between earthing and grounding is that "earthing" signifies that the circuit is genuinely connected to the ground, which has zero electric potential to the Earth. The circuit is not physically connected to the earth in "Grounding," but its potential in relation to other locations is zero.
Let us now go through the table and differentiate between earthing and grounding.
The earthing connects the non-current carrying portion to the earth. In contrast, in grounding, the current-carrying component is directly connected to the ground. Grounding is in charge of load balancing, whereas earthing is in charge of protecting against electrical shock. The earthing electrode must not be positioned within 1.5 meters of a building whose installation system is earthed. The earth wire's resistance should be less than 1 ohm. It is critical that the wire used for the electrode and the circuit be the same material. The electrodes must be placed vertically so that they can touch the earth's strata.
The conductor must be larger than 2.6 square mm in size, and only half of the wire shall be used for electrical wiring.