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Noble Gases Use and Its Properties for JEE

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Last updated date: 19th Jul 2024
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What are Noble Gases?

Group 18 (noble gases) sits at the far right of the Periodic Table of Elements and is simply referred to as "inert gases" because of their filled valence shells, which make them extremely non-reactive (octets). The noble gases were discovered somewhat late in comparison to other element groups. The noble gases, commonly known as inert gases and aerogenes, are elements in the modern periodic table that lie in group 18. Zero group elements are called noble gases. Helium is an example of noble gases.


Position of noble gases in periodic table

Position of noble gases in periodic table


Electronic Configuration of Noble Gases

Helium: 1s2

Neon: He 2s2 2p6

Argon: Ne 3s2 3p6

Krypton: Ar 3d10 4s2 4p6

Xenon: Kr 4d10 5s2 5p6

Radon: Xe 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6

 

Helium: Helium is a chemical element with the symbol He for its symbol. Helium has an atomic number of two. Helium exists as a colourless monoatomic gas with no detectable smell or taste under standard temperature and pressure settings (STP). It is worth noting that helium is non-toxic in modest concentrations. It is the first noble gas and also the lightest.

 

Neon: The chemical element neon is represented by the symbol Ne. Neon has an atomic number of ten. Under standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP), neon is a colourless monatomic gas (similar to helium). There is no distinct odour associated with this gas. The noble gas neon is the second lightest after helium.

 

Argon: Argon is the third noble gas, with an atomic number of 18. This element is represented by the symbol Ar. Argon is reported to be the third most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere. When placed in an electric field, argon is known to exist as a colourless gas that emits a violet or lilac-coloured glow at conventional temperature and pressure settings.

 

Krypton: The fourth noble gas is krypton. Krypton has an atomic number of 36. The sign Kr is frequently used to represent this element. Under typical temperature and pressure settings, krypton exists as a colourless monatomic gas with no detectable odour. It is also known that this gas has no taste.

 

Xenon: The atomic number of xenon, the fifth noble gas, is 54. The sign 'Xe' is often used to represent xenon. This element is known to be a colourless and odourless monoatomic gas under standard conditions.


Properties of Noble gases 

Physical Properties of Noble Gases

  • Noble gases have the highest ionisation energies, which reflect their chemical stability. As one progresses through Group 18, the atomic radius and interatomic forces increase, resulting in higher melting, boiling, and vaporisation enthalpies.

  • The increase in group density is proportional to the increase in atomic mass. As the atomic size of the atoms increases, the electron clouds of these non-polar atoms become progressively polarised, resulting in weak van der Waals forces among the atoms. Due to their melting and boiling temperatures, the production of liquids and solids is easier for these heavier elements.

  • Noble gases characteristics are that they are remarkably stable because their outer shells are full, preventing them from forming chemical bonds and not allowing them to receive or lose electrons. Unlike other group elements, noble gases have minimal interatomic interactions, resulting in extremely low boiling and melting temperatures.


Chemical Properties of Noble Gases

  • Chemically, these elements are latent due to their stable electronic structure.

  • Group 18 elements have a high enthalpy of ionisation and a significantly positive enthalpy of electron gain. As one moves down along the group, the chemical movement of the elements increases with a drop in the ionisation enthalpy.

  • The ionisation enthalpies of helium, argon, and neon are too high to form compounds.

  • Because the enthalpy of ionisation of krypton is somewhat higher than that of xenon, it only generates krypton difluoride.

  • Because radon has no stable isotopes, it forms just a few compounds, such as radon difluoride and a few complexes, despite having a lower enthalpy of ionisation than xenon. 

  • Neil Bartlett predicted in 1962 that xenon would react with hexafluoride from platinum. He was the first to create a xenon compound called xenon hexafluoroplatinate (V). Later, many xenon compounds were integrated. These include fluorides, oxyfluorides, and oxides. Xenon Platinum Hexafluoride (XePF6) is derived from Xenon Hexafluoroplatinate(V).
    $\mathrm{Xe}+\mathrm{PtF}_{6} \rightarrow \mathrm{XePtF}_{6}$


Application of Noble Gases

Noble gases are gases with specific properties often used in specific industrial processes. For example, they are used in lighting and welding, laser equipment, and diving gear. Most of these gases are found in low concentrations in the ambient air. The use of noble gases are:


Helium

  • Due to its limited solubility in liquids or lipids, helium is employed as a component of breathing gases 

  • Welding arcs and surrounding base metal are shielded by helium and argon from the atmosphere.

  • Helium is used in cryogenics to maintain objects at extremely low temperatures, particularly superconductors.

  • Helium is also the most popular carrier gas in gas chromatography.

  • Helium is used in filling balloons.

  • Asthma is treated using a mixture of oxygen and helium.


Neon

  • Neon is used in neon lights, fog lights, television cinescopes, lasers, voltage detectors, luminous warnings, and advertising panels, among other things.

  • The most common application of neon is neon tubing, which is used in advertising and extravagant decorations.


Argon

  • Argon is used in a variety of industries, including electronics, lighting, glass, and metal fabrication.

  • Argon is used in electronics to grow germanium with a safe heat transfer medium and to generate ultra-pure silicon crystal semiconductors.

  • Argon can also be used to fill fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, producing the blue light seen in "neon lamps."

  • Argon also acts as an inert gas barrier during welding, removes casting porosity from melted metals, and offers an oxygen and nitrogen-free environment for glazing and rolling metals and alloys.


Krypton

  • Because of its better thermal efficiency, Krypton is sometimes used over argon for insulation.

  • Fuel sources, lasers, and flashlights all contain Krypton. In lasers, it serves as a control for a desired optical wavelength.

  • Because Krypton reduces the evaporation rate of the filament, it is employed in high-performance light bulbs with higher colour temperatures and efficiency.


Xenon

  • Xenon is used in incandescent lighting, x-ray development, plasma display panels, and other applications.

  • Xenon also allows for better x-rays with lower levels of radiation.

  • When coupled with oxygen, xenon can improve the contrast in plasma display panels.


Radon

  • Radon is the second most common cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. However, it is utilised in radiation, arthritis treatment, and bathing applications.

  • Radon was largely employed in radiotherapy for the treatment of cancers.

  • Radon has been linked to the prevention of autoimmune illnesses such as arthritis.


Conclusion

Due to their filled octets, Group 18 elements, often known as noble gases, belong to the far right of the Periodic Table and are stable and non-reactive. In the late 18th century, Henry Cavendish separated the noble gases by chemically removing oxygen and nitrogen from an air container. Willian Francis, the second person to isolate these elements, made the latest breakthroughs in the field. 


The use of noble gases in daily life includes filling in balloons with helium to radon in radiotherapy. In comparison to other substances, noble gases absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation in a much simpler manner. In discharge lamps and fluorescent lighting equipment, this behaviour is employed. Despite being less reactive, the uses of noble gases are extensive.

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FAQs on Noble Gases Use and Its Properties for JEE

1. Define absorption of noble gases?

Coconut charcoal is an adsorber of noble gases. The adsorption of various noble gases takes place at various temperatures. Charcoal is utilised to separate these gases. Charcoal does not absorb helium. Helium belongs to the noble gas group, which implies that it is not reactive with other elements.


Because helium is non-polar, it is unable to create significant chemical interactions with the surface of charcoal (absorbent) to undertake chemisorption.


The van der Waal forces exerted by helium are negligible due to its low atomic mass. As a result, it can not be absorbed by the charcoal.

2. Which element is not found in the environment?

Radon (atomic number 86) is a radioactive gas created when Radium-226 in Uranium ore decays. This is not found in the environment. Because of its radioactivity, radon can be used in radiotherapy. It has been employed in glass or gold implantable seeds that are primarily used to cure cancers. Radon is a radioactive element and is not present in the atmosphere. It is formed by the radioactive decay of radium and is found in rocks containing uranium ores. Radon has been linked to the prevention of autoimmune illnesses such as arthritis.