To know more about Boron trifluoride, we must first know about the inorganic compounds. Inorganic compounds are those compounds in which a Carbon-Hydrogen bond is absent. Boron Trifluoride is also an inorganic compound as it doesn't involve the C-H bond.
Properties of Boron Trifluoride
It is gas at room temperature.
It is colorless and is toxic.
When it is mixed with air (moist), it forms white fumes.
The chemical formula of Boron Trifluoride is BF3.
The Shape of a BF3 Molecule
If we take a closer look at a BF3 molecule, we see that it is a trigonal planar in geometry which means that one atom of Boron is surrounded by three atoms of Fluorine. The three atoms of Fluorine on the outer side form an equilateral triangle and all those three have a bond angle of 120° with each other.
Lewis Structure of Boron Trifluoride
If you want to know about the lewis structure of BF3, you first need to check the number of valence electrons in the molecule of BF3 which comes out to be 24. In the lewis structure of the BF₃ molecule, all these electrons have to be drawn around the central atom i.e., Boron. The central atom of this structure is Boron because of the least electronegativity among the four atoms. To complete the octet, Boron needs six electrons in its outer shell. This doesn't affect the overall charge of the BF3 molecule which is neutral.
How should You draw the BF₃ Lewis Structure?
Before we draw the Lewis structure of the BF3 molecule, we have to determine how many valence electrons are present in a BF3 molecule. After calculating, the number comes out to be 24. After we know the number of valence electrons, we need to add them around the central atom and complete the octet.
In some molecules, we might see that the octet rule is being violated. For example, if there are an odd number of valence electrons in a molecule or if the number of valence electrons in a molecule is less, or even if the number of valence electrons in a molecule is very high. These are exceptional cases so therefore we should not think much about them. At the moment, we should just talk about the BF3 molecule. Boron has 5 valence electrons out of which 3 electrons are free to make bonds. All of these 3 electrons pair with 3 electrons of three different Fluorine atoms. Each Fluorine atom has 7 valence electrons out of which only 1 is free to make a bond.
Hybridization as we know is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals. These hybrid orbitals determine the different geometrical shapes of different molecules. Based on the type of orbitals mixed, hybridization is of six types. The type of hybridization seen in a BF3 molecule is sp2. In this molecule, all the bonds formed are sigma bonds. There is a lone pair of electrons in the Boron atom. In this molecule, three sp2 hybrid orbitals of Boron form bonds with three p orbitals of three Fluorine atoms.
A molecule's polarity is given by the overall charge present on that atom. If we talk about a BF3 molecule, it is neutral which means the overall charge on it is zero. Hence, zero polarity, or one can say that BF3 is a nonpolar molecule. This is because the difference in the electronegativities of both B and F atoms is almost negligible.
This was all about the BF3 molecule. To know more about it in detail, visit the Vedantu website or download its app, from where you can watch video lectures that will facilitate you with the concepts of this topic.
Before entering into the hybridization of BF3, let us go through a few details about Boron trifluoride. This chemical compound is an inorganic compound that is a toxic toxic inorganic compound, but it is colorless when it is in the gaseous stage. It produces gasses when reacted with moist air. It is a highly soluble substance (dihydrate) in its liquid form.
The hybridization for this molecule is sp2 hybridized. In simple terms, usually, Boron’s atomic p and s orbitals in the outer shell combine to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals, where all of the equivalent energy. Toxic places look at some properties of BF3, such as molecular name, formula, and more, as tabulated below.
Hybridization of BF3
Hybridization is nothing but the process of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals. Let us look at the boron trifluoride hybridization. They are accommodating to describe nuclear bonding and molecular geometry properties. There are various types of hybridization, like SP, SP2, SP3. BF3 is an sp2 hybridization. It is sp2 for this molecule because one π (pi) bond is needed for the double bond between the Boron, and just three σ bonds are produced per Boron atom. The atomic S and P – orbitals in Boron outer shell mix to form three equivalent hybrid orbitals of sp2.
The BF3 molecule shape is represented as the BF3 hybridization of the central atom.
Polarity of BF₃
Polarity is the method of separating an electric charge leading to a molecule or its groups having either a moment of electric dipole or multipole. However, there is no chance for a contradiction for BF3, and it is nonpolar. When the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is less than 0.5, it is nonpolar in most cases.
Molecular Geometry for BF₃
Now, let us look at the BF3 molecular geometry and bond angles.
The geometry of the molecule of BF3 is ‘Trigonal Planar.’ With the Chemistry reference, ‘Trigonal Planar’ is a model having three atoms around one atom in the middle. It is similar to peripheral atoms containing all in one place, as all three of them are likewise with the 120° bond angles on each, which makes them an equilateral triangle.
The planar triangular geometry shape is mainly formed by the overlap between the two compounds. Further, it also has symmetric charge distribution on the central atom and is nonpolar.
The bond angle is 120°, where all the atoms are in one place. Each of BF3 molecular geometry and bond angles also makes an equilateral triangle.
Lewis Structure of BF3 The structure of the BF3 molecule based on hybridization is given.
To know about the BF3 Lewis structure, we have to calculate the total valence electrons count for the BF3 molecule. BF3 has a maximum of 24 valence electrons, which we have to place around the central atom. Before going to complete the octets, do not forget to determine how many valence electrons are there in Boron Trifluoride and should place them accordingly.
Boron gets settled at the center of the structure due to being the least electronegative. It needs six valence electrons in its outer shell. If we inspect the formal charges for the Boron Trifluoride Lewis structure, we will notice that they are zero even though Boron only had six valence electrons.
Drawing a Lewis Structure
To draw a Lewis Structure, firstly, add electrons, and draw the connectivities. As we know, there are 24 electrons here. Then, add the octets to the outer atom and the remaining electrons to the central atom. However, we know that there are no remaining electrons found. (24 – 24 = 0)Violations While Drawing a Lewis StructureIt is necessary to remember while drawing a Lewis structure that the Octet Rule can be violated in the three situations given below. However, each time we do not need to think about it, it is rare, and these exceptions will only take place when necessary.
Exception 1: When there is an odd number count in valence electrons (like 3,5,7)
Exception 2: If there exist very few valence electrons
Exception 3: If there are so many valence electrons
Here, the central electron does not have any of the octets as it has six particles. So, we can try to add more than one bond to decide whether the BF3 hybridization of the central atom can achieve an octet or not! Now, it has an octet.Applications of BF3The Boron Trifluoride (BF₃) is found in many of the applications. BF3, as a strong Lewis acid, the catalytic properties are used for the reactions such as epoxy resins, polymerization of phenolic, and other isomerization, esterification, alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons, and condensation reactions. It also can be used as a source in the manufacturing of high-purity boron isotopes like those found in the neutron radiation control applications, nuclear waste containment, and in the semiconductor industry applications and as the manufacturing of semiconductor grade silicon. BF₃ is also used as a gas flux for brazing and soldering, and in the diborane production, and other boron-containing compounds.
Advantages of BF3
Gulbrandsen is the largest supplier of compressed BF3 gas to the North American market.
Our supply location in Texas and LaPorte is situated uniquely to offer quick supply and superior logistics to the Gulf Coast region of the United States.
Our bulk tube trailers are designed and also used for international transport, allowing us to supply bulk shipments of BF3 across all regions of the world.