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Difference Between Displacement and Double Displacement Reaction for JEE Main 2024

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Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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What is Displacement and Double Displacement Reaction: Introduction

To differentiate between displacement and double displacement reaction: Displacement and double displacement reactions are fundamental chemical processes that involve the exchange of atoms or ions between reactants to form new products. In a displacement reaction, a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound, resulting in the formation of a new compound and a free element. This type of reaction is characterised by the transfer of an atom or ion from one compound to another. On the other hand, double displacement reactions occur when ions from two different compounds exchange places, forming two new compounds. These reactions often involve the formation of a precipitate, gas, or water as a product. Read further for more.


Category:

JEE Main Difference Between

Content-Type:

Text, Images, Videos and PDF

Exam:

JEE Main

Topic Name:

Difference Between Displacement and Double Displacement Reaction

Academic Session:

2024

Medium:

English Medium

Subject:

Chemistry

Available Material:

Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics


What is Displacement Reaction

A displacement reaction is a type of chemical reaction in which an element or ion from one compound is replaced or displaced by another element or ion. This occurs when the displacing element or ion is more reactive than the element or ion being displaced. The reaction involves the transfer of atoms or ions, resulting in the formation of a new compound and a free element. Displacement reactions often occur between metals and their compounds or between halogens and their salts. These reactions are driven by the difference in reactivity between the elements involved and are essential in various chemical processes, including metallurgy, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. The features of displacement reaction are: 


  • Reactivity: Displacement reactions occur when a more reactive element or ion displaces a less reactive element or ion from its compound. The reactivity series provides a ranking of elements based on their tendency to undergo displacement reactions.

  • Formation of New Compounds: The displaced element or ion combines with a different element or ion to form a new compound, while the displacing element or ion is released as a free element.

  • Specific Reactants: Displacement reactions often occur between metals and their compounds or between halogens and their salts. These reactions are governed by the relative reactivity of the elements involved.

  • Observable Changes: Displacement reactions may exhibit visible changes, such as the formation of a precipitate (solid), the evolution of gas bubbles, or a change in colour. These changes provide evidence for the occurrence of a displacement reaction.

  • Catalytic Role: Some substances can act as catalysts in displacement reactions by facilitating the transfer of electrons between the reactants, enabling the reaction to occur more rapidly without being consumed in the process.


What is Double Displacement Reaction

A double displacement reaction, also known as a metathesis or exchange reaction, is a type of chemical reaction in which ions from two different compounds exchange places, resulting in the formation of two new compounds. This reaction occurs when there is an exchange of positive or negative ions between the reactants. Double displacement reactions often occur in aqueous solutions and are typically driven by the formation of a precipitate, gas, or water. These reactions are characterized by the rearrangement of ions, with the cations and anions swapping partners. The features of double displacement reaction are: 


  • Exchange of Ions: Double displacement reactions involve the exchange of ions between two reactant compounds. The cations and anions from each compound swap partners, resulting in the formation of two new compounds.

  • Aqueous Solution: Double displacement reactions often occur in aqueous solutions where the reactants are dissolved in water. Water serves as the medium for ion exchange and facilitates the reaction.

  • Formation of Precipitate: One common outcome of double displacement reactions is the formation of a precipitate. When two aqueous solutions containing ions that can combine to form an insoluble compound are mixed, the insoluble compound precipitates out as a solid.

  • Formation of Gas: Double displacement reactions may also result in the formation of gas. This can occur when one of the products of the reaction is a gas, such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or ammonia.

  • Acid-Base Neutralization: Some double displacement reactions are a specific type of reaction called acid-base neutralization reactions. In these reactions, an acid reacts with a base to form salt and water.

  • Ionic Equations: Double displacement reactions can be represented using ionic equations, where the dissociated ions are explicitly shown. 


Difference Between Displacement and Double Displacement Reaction

S.No

Category 

Displacement Reaction

Double Displacement Reaction

1

Basis

Involves the replacement of an element in a compound with another element

Involves the exchange of ions between two compounds

2

Reactants

Typically involve a metal reacting with a metal compound or a non-metal with a non-metal compound

Involves two compounds with ions capable of exchanging partners

3

Product Formation

Results in the formation of a new compound and a free element

Results in the formation of two new compounds

4

Redox Nature

Involves a transfer of electrons between the reacting species

May or may not involve a transfer of electrons

5

Ionic Equations

Can be represented using ionic equations to show the transfer of electrons

Can also be represented using ionic equations to show the exchange of ions

6

Oxidation State

The element undergoing displacement undergoes a change in oxidation state

No change in oxidation states of the elements involved


This table provides a general comparison between displacement and double displacement reactions, there may be some overlap and variations depending on specific reactions and circumstances.


Summary 

A displacement reaction, also known as a single replacement reaction, occurs when one element replaces another element in a compound. It involves the transfer of an atom or group of atoms from one reactant to another. On the other hand, a double displacement reaction, also known as a metathesis reaction, occurs when the cations or anions of two different compounds exchange places. This reaction results in the formation of two new compounds. While both types of reactions involve the exchange of atoms or groups of atoms, the key difference lies in the number of compounds involved. Displacement reactions involve the substitution of one element within a compound, while double displacement reactions involve the exchange of ions between two different compounds.

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FAQs on Difference Between Displacement and Double Displacement Reaction for JEE Main 2024

1. Can displacement reactions occur between nonmetals?

Yes, displacement reactions can also occur between nonmetals, although they are relatively less common. Non-metal displacement reactions typically involve highly reactive nonmetals, such as halogens. For example, fluorine (F₂) can displace chlorine (Cl₂) from its compound, or chlorine can displace iodine (I₂). These reactions occur due to the difference in reactivity between the non-metal elements involved, where the more reactive non-metal displaces the less reactive non-metal from its compound.

2. Can double displacement reactions occur in non-aqueous solutions?

Yes, double displacement reactions can occur in non-aqueous solutions, although they are more commonly observed in aqueous solutions. In non-aqueous solutions, the reactants are dissolved in solvents other than water, such as organic solvents like alcohol or ether. Double displacement reactions in non-aqueous solutions often involve the exchange of ions between the reactants, resulting in the formation of new compounds.

3. What is the reactivity series, and how is it related to displacement reactions?

The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in order of their reactivity, from the most reactive to the least reactive. It helps predict the outcome of displacement reactions. In displacement reactions, a more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal from its compound. The reactivity series provides a basis for determining the feasibility of such reactions. A metal higher in the reactivity series can displace a metal lower in the series. The reactivity series thus serves as a guide to understanding and predicting the occurrence of displacement reactions.

4. Are there any limitations or conditions for double displacement reactions to occur?

Yes, there are certain limitations and conditions for double displacement reactions to occur. Some factors that can affect the occurrence of double displacement reactions include the solubility of the reactants in the solvent, the presence of precipitating agents, temperature, and the concentration of the reactants. Additionally, the nature of the reactants and their ability to exchange ions also play a role in determining the feasibility of double displacement reactions.

5. How are double displacement reactions related to acid-base neutralisation reactions?

Double displacement reactions are closely related to acid-base neutralisation reactions. In the double displacement reaction between an acid and a base in an acid-base neutralisation, the result is the formation of salt and water. The acid donates a proton (H⁺) to the base, resulting in the formation of water, while the cation from the base combines with the anion from the acid to form a salt.