Chemical substances helping a human body or an animal either for treatment of disease or to reduce suffering from pain are called medicine or drugs. The treatment of disease by chemical compounds which destroy the microorganisms without attacking the tissue of the human body is known as chemotherapy and the compounds used are called chemotherapeutic agents.
JEE Main Chemistry Chapters 2024
Classification of Medicinal Compounds
Antiseptics: Which prevent or destroy the growth of the harmful microorganisms. Common antiseptics are Dettol, Savlon, Cetavelon, acriflavine, Iodine, Methylene blue, mercurochrome and KMnO4. Dettol is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol. Its dilute solution is used to clean wounds. Bithional is added to soap to impart antiseptic properties.
Disinfectants: The chemical compounds capable of completely destroying the microorganisms are termed as disinfectants. These are toxic to living tissues. These are utilized for sterilization of floor, toilets instruments and clothes. Example, 1% solution of phenol is disinfectant while 0.2% solution of phenol is antiseptic.
Read more about Antiseptics and Disinfectants from Vedantu’s page.
Analgesics: The substance which is used to get relief from pain. These are of two types:
Narcotics: These are alkaloids and mostly opium products, which cause sleep and unconsciousness when taken in higher doses. Examples are Morphine, Codeine, Heroin, etc.
Non-narcotics: Analgesics belonging to this category are effective antipyretics also. Examples are Aspirin and novalgin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, etc.
To read more about the Classification of the Analgesic Drug check out Vedantu’s page.
Antipyretics: Antipyretics is used to bring down the body temperature in a high fever. Example: Aspirin, Analgin, Paracetamol and Phenacetin.
Antimalarials: It is used to bring down the body temperature during malarial fever. Example: Quinine, Chloroquine, Paraquine and Primaquine, etc.
Tranquillizers: The chemical substance which acts on the central nervous system and has a calming effect. Since these are used for mental diseases so are known as Psychotherapeutic drugs. They are if two types:
Sedative or Hypnotics: Reduce nervous tension and promote relaxation. Example: Reserpine, Barbituric acid and its derivatives as luminal and seconal.
Mood Elevator or Antidepressants: A drug used for the treatment of highly depressed patients who have lost their confidence. Example: Benzedrine (amphetamine)
Anaesthetics: These are chemical substances that help produce general or local insensibility to pain and other sensations. These are of two types:
Example: Gaseous form- Nitrous oxide, ethylene, Cyclopropane, etc.
Liquid form- Chloroform, divinyl ether and sodium pentothal, etc.
Antibiotics: The chemical substance produced from some microorganisms like fungi bacteria or mold and are used to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. They are effective in the treatment of infectious disease. An example is Penicillin. It is a highly effective drug for Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Abscesses, Sore throat, etc.
Read more about Antibiotics from Vedantu’s page.
Sulpha Drugs: Having great antibacterial powers. These are groups of drugs which are derivatives of sulphanilamide. Some other sulpha drugs are sulphathiazole, sulphaguanidine, sulpha pyridine, etc.
Antacids: Overproduction of acid in the stomach causes irritation and pain. In severe cases, ulcers are developed in the stomach. The only treatment of acidity is the administration of antacids, such as sodium hydrogen carbonate or a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide.
Antihistamines: A chemical histamine stimulates the secretion of pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The drug cimetidine was designed to prevent interaction of histidine with the receptor present in the stomach wall.
Artificial Sweetening Agent
Sucrose adds to calorie intake and thus many people prefer to use artificial sweeteners. Saccharin is the first artificial sweetening agent. It is about 550 times as sweet as cane sugar. It appears to be entirely inert and harmless as it is excreted from the body as urine unchanged.
Food preservatives prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. The most commonly used preservatives include table salt, sugar, vegetable oils and sodium benzoate. Sodium benzoate is used in limited quantities and is metabolised in the body. Salts of sorbic acid and propanoic acid are used as preservatives.
These are agents which improve the cleansing properties of water. They are mainly of two types: soap and synthetic detergents. They help in the removal of fats which binds other material to the fabric or skin.
Soap: Soaps are sodium and potassium salt of long fatty acids, for example, stearic acid, oleic acid, etc.
Synthetic Detergents: They have all properties soaps but they do not contain any soap. These can be used as both soft and hard water.
To provide sufficient push to the rocket satellites to enter into space, some chemical fuels are used which are termed as rocket propellants.
Double base propellants
Mono Liquid propellant
Bi liquid propellant
Hydride Propellant: These consist of solid fuel and liquid oxidiser.
Chemical Reactions in Everyday Life
Chemical reactions are all around us, happening all the time. They are responsible for many of the things we take for granted. From the food we consume to the energy we utilize, chemical reactions are the driving force behind countless processes that make up our existence.
Here are Some 10 Chemical Reactions in Our Daily Life:
Combustion: The warmth that radiates from our homes, the fuel that powers our vehicles, and the flames that illuminate our celebrations, all stem from combustion, a chemical reaction between a fuel and oxygen.
Photosynthesis: The verdant plants that adorn our planet, the oxygen we breathe, and the food we consume, all owe their existence to photosynthesis, a reaction where plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen.
Respiration: Every breath we take initiates a series of intricate chemical reactions, collectively known as respiration. This process breaks down glucose into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy that fuels our bodies' functions.
Digestion: The transformation of food into nutrients, a process essential for our survival, involves a cascade of chemical reactions. Enzymes orchestrate the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, making them digestible and absorbable.
Rusting: The gradual deterioration of iron, giving rise to the familiar reddish-brown coating, is a result of a chemical reaction called rusting. This reaction occurs when iron interacts with oxygen and moisture in the environment.
Soap and Detergent Reactions: The cleansing power of soaps and detergents lies in their ability to interact with dirt and grease molecules. This interaction, a chemical reaction, allows these substances to lift away dirt and grime, leaving surfaces clean and refreshed.
Battery Reactions: The flow of electricity, the power that drives our modern world, is made possible by chemical reactions within batteries. These reactions convert chemical energy into electrical energy, enabling the operation of countless devices.
Fireworks Reactions: The dazzling displays of color and sound that ignite our celebrations are a result of carefully orchestrated chemical reactions. Mixtures of chemicals, when ignited, undergo rapid reactions, producing the vibrant colors and thunderous booms we associate with fireworks.
Cooking Reactions: The culinary creations that tantalize our taste buds involve a symphony of chemical reactions. From the denaturation of proteins to the caramelization of sugars, these reactions transform raw ingredients into delectable dishes.
Fermentation: The bubbles in our favorite beverages, the tangy flavor of sourdough bread, and the intoxicating aroma of aged cheeses, all stem from fermentation, a process driven by chemical reactions. Microorganisms convert sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide, leading to the creation of various fermented products.
JEE Main Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Study Materials
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JEE Main Chemistry Study and Practice Materials
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The study of Chemistry in Everyday Life is vital for JEE Main students as it elucidates the profound impact of chemistry on our daily existence. It unveils the role of pharmaceuticals, food additives, and chemicals in personal care products. Understanding drug formulations, their modes of action, and their influence on health and society is essential. This knowledge empowers students to make informed choices and appreciate the significance of chemical regulations in ensuring safety. With insights into the chemistry behind daily products and healthcare, JEE Main students gain a broader perspective on the pervasive influence of chemistry in our lives.