Soaps And Detergents

Soaps And Detergents - Classification and Application of Detergents

In today's time, everyone wants cleanliness around them, the substances like soaps and detergents bring the cleanliness, so today we are going to talk about soap and detergents briefly.

Soap -Soap is the sodium or potassium salts of organic fatty acids with the high molecular weight. Soap is a household product which is mainly used in washing, bathing, and some other types of householding. In the action of saponification, by heating the vegetable oil or aqueous solution of fat and caustic soda or caustic potash, the soap is produced by the chemical reaction, and the glycerol gets free.





Fat or Fatty acids + NaOH/KOH -> Soap + Glycerol

Soap is an organic mixture generates foamy froth in the water. Its aqueous solution is alkaline which gives the blue color to red Litmus.

Soaps are fatty salts of fatty acids. Such fatty acids can contain 6 to 22 carbon atoms. Generally, soap is not prepared from fatty acids. Glycerides of fatty acids are found in the form of oil and fat. Due to these glycerides, most of the soap in the world is prepared with bacterial decomposition with sophisticated soda. Glycerin is obtained as a substance in the formation of soap which is a very useful substance.

Soap in India -During British rule, England's Lever Brothers took the risk of presenting modern soaps for the first time in India. This company has imported soaps and market them here; Although North West Soap Company was the first company to plant a factory here in 1897. In a key part of the soap's success, Jamshedji Tata bought OK coconut oil mills at Kochi in Kerala in 1918 and established the country's first indigenous soap manufacturing unit. Its name was changed to Tata Oil Mills Company, and its first branded soap market began to appear from the beginning of 1930.

Raw Material for Soap - Oil, and fats are used in making large amounts of soap. Rosin is also used in addition to these oils and fats. Most of the soaps are not made with one oil, although there are some oils that can make soap. Several oils and fats are used for manufacturing good quality soaps. Different types of soaps are made for different use. Soap should be cheap for washing. But bath soaps can be expensive. The color of soap depends on the color of oil itself. Cleaning of oil and color for white soap is absolutely essential. The cleaning of the oil is done by heating a solution of some sodium hydroxide in the oil. Sodium salts are made of rosin acid in soap. To make soap soft or flavoring and adhesive, a little ammonia or tri-ethanolamine are used. In the soap used for shavings, the above mentioned Chemical materials are required to be used.

Making of Soap - To make soap, mix oil or fats with a solution of caustic soda and boil them in large pots or kettle. Size of the kettle can vary. Generally, the vertical cylinders of 10 to 150 tonnes of hydration are made of soft steel. They are heated from the steam wound. Only 1/3 of the capacitance is filled with oil or fat. There are two sequences of pure soap: In a sequence, oil and fat are dissolved in water, resulting in glycerin, and fatty acids. Distillation can be a refinement of fatty acids. In the second order, the fatty acids tend to be depressed by the alkalis. Use soda ash for potassium soap and potash base for soft soap. Methods of mixing and heating oil and alkali in the pan can vary in different factories. Put oil in a pan somewhere and heat it and add soda solution to it. They take oil from somewhere and on the other hand soda solution is brought and is warmed. 


Soap on the upper floor and the aqueous solution separates at the bottom. Put the concentration of alkali in soap (8 to 12 percent) and then heat it for three hours. This completes the Soapization. If the color of soap is to be lightened, then put a little Sodium Hydrosulfite. Thus, the preparation of soap can take 5 to 10 days. If the garment-washing soap is to be made, then add a little sodium silicate in it, frosting it, cutting it into the ticks and stamp on it. If you want to make a bath soap, then cut dry soap and grind it with essential color and aromatic stuff, then press it in the press and make the bar and cut it small by stamping it.



Soap doesn't work properly with hard water, and this is the biggest drawback of soap.

Detergent - Detergent is a chemical liquid or powder which used to clean things. Basically, detergent is the mixture of surfactants with the cleaning properties in the liquid form. Detergent is usually Alkylbenzene sulfonates, a compound which is similar to the soap but more soluble in hard water because the polar sulfonate of detergent is less than the polar carboxylate of soap bind to calcium and other ions which are found in the hard water. The properties of detergent and soap are almost the same although detergent is more soluble, and because of this detergent gives good cleaning result in hard water too.



Classification of Detergent - Generally, detergent can be classified into three parts.

1. Anionic detergents - Anionic detergents are Alkylbenzene sulfonates. In Anionic detergents, the alkylbenzene is lipophilic, and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. According to one report, around 6 billion kilograms Anionic detergents are being produced per year for the domestic market.

2. Cationic detergents - Cationic detergents are nearly the same as the Anionic detergents. The main difference between Anionic detergents and Cationic detergents is that the cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end. 
 
3. Non-ionic Detergents and Zwitterionic Detergents - Uncharged, hydrophilic head groups are the characteristics of Non-ionic Detergents which is generally based on polyoxyethylene or a glycoside. Without altering the native charge of the protein molecules, Zwitterionic detergent protects the native state of proteins. It is used for isoelectric focusing and 2D electrophoresis. These detergents are known as sulfobetaines too.


History of Detergents - During World War I, the situation of the oil shortage arose, and the Detergent was invented. Germany was the first ever country to produce synthetic detergent.

Applications of Detergents - The major applications of detergents are given below.

Cleaning - The major application of detergents is household cleaning including dish Washing and washing laundry. Due to the supreme cleaning, the demand for detergent gets always high in the domestic market.

Fuel additives -The components of carburetors and fuel injector of an Otto engine get benefited from detergents in the fuels to prevent fouling.

Biological reagent - Reagent grade detergent is used for the isolation and purification of integral membrane proteins which is found in biological cells.