Introduction : All of us are familiar with the word energy. When we lack energy, we say we are tired and unable to do anything productive. So, what is energy and what are its various forms?
Energy can be defined as the vitality and strength that are required for carrying out an activity. It is also explained as the power derived from the utilization of physical and chemical resources.
In Science, however, energy is defined as the capacity to do work. This definition is still not very satisfactory to us, but it is difficult to define energy with great precision. Energy exists in many forms. Some of them are Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy, Chemical Energy, Nuclear Energy, Electrical Energy etc: Also, it is pertinent to note that there are other forms of energy like heat and work in the process of transfer from one body to another body. The unit of energy is Joules. 1 Joule = 1kg.m2/s2. It is a bit difficult to define energy in very precise terms because it is an abstract notion and not something tangible. Energy is generally carried by something, usually in the form of movement. When objects move or remain in a position, they have energy which has different names.
Though energy exists in various forms as mentioned earlier, it is important to understand that energy remains conserved always. When a form of energy is converted from one form to another during any process, the overall quantity of energy remains the same; there is no loss or gain. This is what is called conservation of energy.
Our discussion here will focus on only two of the forms of energy – Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy.
Let us now go into each of these separately to understand them first.
An energy that is stored in an object and not moving, but which has the potential to move is called Potential Energy.
Potential Energy or PE as we can call it is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to another body. PE could also be the energy in a body due to its internal stress if any of the electrical charges in a body. One of the most common forms of PE is gravitational potential energy. The amount of PE, in this case, depends on the mass of the body. This is the energy required to move a body against the force of gravitation of the earth. A spring, when extended, has energy in it waiting to come back to its original position. This also has enough potential energy. The term potential energy was first coined by a great physicist William Rankine in the 18th century. Potential energy is always determined based on the position of a body and not based on its trajectory of movement. Some of the important factors that impact PE are its mass, its height relative to another object, and the strength of the gravitational field. Imagine a book or a ball of iron resting on a table at a height of 2 meters from the ground. If the same object were to be placed at a height of 10 meters from the ground, the object at the higher position would have a higher PE than the one at the lower height. It is also called restoring energy because this in a way forces the object to come back to its original energy state.
When an object is raised from the ground, work is done against the gravitational force. Energy is spent in doing this work. When the object again falls to the ground, the object then gains energy from the gravitational energy. While the object falls and is in motion from its position of rest earlier, the PE gets converted to another form of energy. We will talk about the other form later.
Potential energy is measured by the formula PE = mgh,
m is the mass,
g is the acceleration due to gravity and
h is the height (or position).
Atoms or molecules are arranged in different chemicals. The specific arrangement of the atoms and molecules to form a structure contributes to the chemical potential energy of a chemical substance. Also, when chemicals react, the energy will be transformed from one form to another.
For example: when a log of wood burns, the chemical energy is converted to heat.
Also attributable to electric charge, an object has electrostatic potential energy and electrodynamic potential energy.
There are particles inside the atomic nucleus. The particles inside also have energy which is the nuclear potential energy.
The word Kinetic has its origin in the Greek language. In the Greek language, the word kinesis means "to move". This name was originally coined by William Thomson.
When an object is stationary it has Potential energy as we saw earlier. However, when the same object begins to move, then it releases Kinetic Energy.
While PE is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position, Kinetic Energy (KE) is the energy possessed by virtue of an object’s motion. In other words, the work needed to accelerate a body from rest to a required velocity is called kinetic energy of the object. This is true even for particles that are in motion. A person who throws a ball, a running train, or a falling drop of water are all examples of objects with kinetic energy.
KE depends on two aspects of the body. One is the mass of the object and the other is the velocity with which it moves. Of the two, Velocity is more important and plays a key role in determining energy. There are different types of KE as we saw in PE. Some of them are Radiant, Thermal, Sound, Electrical and Mechanical. If an object is not moving, it has Zero KE. KE is given by the formula KE=1/2MV2 where M is the mass of the body and V is the velocity with which the object moves.
The movement of an object can be Horizontal or Vertical for it to possess KE.
Some of the important applications that see the significance of KE are as follows:
In automobiles, the fuel is burnt, and the heat energy is converted to a motion which is again Kinetic energy in action.
In hydroelectric plants, when water is stored it has potential energy, then it flows down, and the PE gets converted to KE and the KE is converted to electrical energy.
In Windmills, the wind rotates the blades and this rotational kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy.
Now let us look at some of the differences that are significant, between PE and KE
Now with this information, you should try to identify which of the following are Potential Energy examples and which the examples are for Kinetic Energy:
Two magnets kept apart, a running train, Snow on top of a mountain, an avalanche, a ball in the hand of a player, a cricket ball travelling at 80km/hr.
Answer the above in the same order as the questions: PE, KE, PE, KE, PE, KE.
Wherever there is no motion involved, the energy that we refer to is Potential Energy. Wherever there is motion involved, the energy is referred to as Kinetic Energy.
To conclude, you just have to remember that Potential Energy is due to Position, and Kinetic energy is due to motion. Also, Potential energy can be converted to Kinetic and the reverse is also true. However, in any such process of conversion, energy is conserved. There is no loss or gain of energy. This is the law of conservation of energy.
The capacity of doing any work is known as energy. The energy can be stored in different ways. Energy is proportional to the mass of an object as energy is considered one of the physical quantities. The ability of anybody to exert any push or pull against the natural forces helps in identifying the kind of energy being talked about. If any object is in the position of rest, then it is to be said that the body possesses the potential energy. On the other hand, when an object is in the position of motion or we can say that the object is moving, then it is being said that the body possesses kinetic energy.
The potential energy will always affect the objects within the environment only when it will get transformed into other kinds of energy. An example of the body possessing potential energy is a rock that is at a resting position on the top of the cliff. If the rock falls, it will possess kinetic energy. The gravitational potential energy is the energy that is already being stored in the body because of the elevation. Some bodies can contain both potential energy and kinetic energy, for example, waterfalls. The base of the potential energy is the height of the waterfall whereas the base for the kinetic energy is the movement of water.
Difference between Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
Kinetic energy is that kind of energy that is being present in the body due to the property of its motion whereas potential energy is that kind of energy that is being present in the body due to the property of its rest state.
Kinetic energy can easily be transferred from one body to another whereas potential energy cannot be transferable from one body to another.
Kinetic energy has its determining factors and those are mass and speed or velocity whereas the determining factors of potential energy are height, distance and mass.
The example of kinetic energy could be flowing water whereas the example of potential energy is the water that is present at the top of the hill.
The kinetic energy is relative concerning nature whereas the potential energy is non-relative concerning its nature.
Applications of the Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
The gravitational potential energy is responsible for keeping the planets around the sun in an orbit.
The projectiles which are being thrown by a trebuchet makes use of the gravitational potential energy. Frequently Asked Questions
The roller coasters are always there in all the amusement parks, firstly they begin with the kinetic energy and then convert into gravitational potential energy.
In the spacecraft, chemical energy is being used for taking it off, and then the kinetic energy increases for reaching the orbital velocity. While in orbit, the kinetic energy which was gained will remain constant.
In the game of billiards, kinetic energy is being given to cue which is transferred to the other balls of the game through collisions.