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Last updated date: 13th Jul 2024
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Forest and Wildlife in India

Wildlife refers to undomesticated animal species, but all animals that evolve or exist in the wild in an environment without human introduction have come to be included. In all habitats, biodiversity can be found. There are distinct types of wildlife in deserts, forests, rainforests, plains, grasslands, and other regions, including the most populated urban areas. Although the term generally applies to animals in popular culture that are unaffected by human influences, most scientists accept that human activities influence a great deal of wildlife.

To control the populations of different animal and bird species, forests and wildlife are important

Flora and Fauna 

You will be able to discover that several animals and plants are rare in your region if you look around. In fact, in terms of its vast array of biological diversity, India is one of the richest countries in the world. This is potentially two or three times the amount yet to be found. In our daily lives, these rich flora and fauna are so well incorporated that we take them for granted. But lately, mostly due to insensitivity to our climate, they are under great stress.

Different Plant and Animal Species

Natural Species: Species whose population levels, such as cattle, salt, pine, are considered normal for their survival.

Vulnerable Species: 

These are species whose population has decreased to levels that are likely to shift into the endangered category in the foreseeable future if the adverse factors continue to work. Blue sheep, Asian elephants, Gangetic dolphins, etc. are examples of such animals.

Rare Species: 

Small-populated species can shift into an endangered or vulnerable category if they continue to be affected by negative factors. The Himalayan brown bear, wild Asian buffalo, desert fox, and hornbill, etc, are examples of such animals.

Endemic Species: 

These are species that are typically separated by natural or geographical barriers only in some particular areas. The Andaman teal, the Nicobar pigeon, the Andaman wild pig, and the Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh are examples of such animals.

Extinct Species: 

These are species that do not exist despite looking for known or probable areas in which they may occur. A species from a local area, region, world, continent, or the entire earth may be extinct. The Asian cheetah and the pink head duck are examples of such species.

Types and Distribution of Forests and Wildlife Resources:

Classification of Forest:

  • Reserved Forests

  • Protected Forests

  • Unclassed Forests

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India:

Conservation protects the natural diversity of water, air, and soil and our life support systems. It also protects plant and animal genetic diversity for better species and breeding development. In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was passed, with various habitat protection provisions. A list of protected species was also released for all of India. The geographical condition of India and various climatic features have endowed the country with a large range of biological communities. Neither forest policy nor forest laws paid much respect to wildlife in the early years of forest conservation. The wildlife was 'game' and abundant. At the cost of community forests, the food crisis of the Second World War gave rise to an expansion of agriculture. Land allocation gained an extra social hue with independence-land for the landless-and even reserve forests were not spared. If it had not been for the activities of some ardent friends of wildlife, the scope of destruction would have been much greater.

Project Tiger: 

Tiger is one of the major species of wildlife in the network of fauna. The authorities realized that, at the turn of the century, the tiger population had declined to 1,827 from an estimated 55,000. In 1973, Project Tiger, one of the world's well-publicized wildlife projects, was launched. Tiger conservation has not only been seen as an attempt to protect tigers. Save a species that is endangered, but with equal meaning as a way of retaining biotypes of major magnitude. The goal of forest cover in India is to cross 33 percent of the land area, but in terms of biodiversity and wildlife protection, forests within the Protected Areas have unique significance. Years ago, a report on Indian tiger reserves by the Zoological Survey of India showed how tiger reserves have contributed to the country's efforts to preserve biological diversity by protecting keystone species and forests. It should be noted that 70% of the world's biodiversity has been reported so far from the forested region.

To conserve the ecological diversity and the water, soil, and air that are the life support systems, conservation is important. In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was enacted with various habitat protection provisions and an all-India list of protected species was issued. Several initiatives for the conservation of specific animals were also declared by the central government and were seriously threatened.

FAQs on Wildlife

1. Explain Wildlife and its Importance.

Ans. Wildlife refers to living creatures that are neither domesticated/tamed nor bred, including animals, plants, and micro-organisms found in natural habitats. In balancing the ecosystem, wildlife plays an important role. Wildlife provides the various processes in nature with stability. For emotional and social purposes, biodiversity and nature have been largely correlated with humans. To establish ecological equilibrium on earth, we are also a part of biodiversity. In order to preserve the balance of nature, wildlife helps. 

2. Explain Forests.

Ans. A region with a high tree density is referred to as a forest which is a network made up of plants, animals, and microorganisms.  Forests are the home of a number of living organisms. In the forest, many plants, animals, and microbes live. A region of land covered by trees is a forest. Throughout the world, hundreds of forest concepts are used, integrating variables such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal status, and ecological role. A tree's branches make its crown. A community of tall buildings, a forest of tall buildings, is an instance of a forest. Foresting involves planting an area with trees. It does not cover land which is primarily used for agricultural or urban land use.