The climate of India is tropical and hence the vegetation of India is all a result of the landmass being located in a tropical region. The climate of a place is affected by the location of the region, altitude of the region, distance from the sea and relief features. Knowing the wide diversity of regions in India, the regional experience of the climate of India is diverse and this is clearly visible in the diversity of the vegetation of India, which clearly has an effect on the wildlife and culture of the people in those regions as well.
Thus, in India climate vegetation and wildlife information clearly shows an interconnected relationship between the three. Moving forward, a brief account of the climate of India, vegetation of India and wildlife of India is given in the article.
Climate of India
The climate of any region is the average weather condition measure over a period of many years. Thus, over a wide area, the weather is the local changes and variations taking place in the state of the atmosphere over a particular region. And overall the climate is the weather in a given region over long periods of time. Hence, there cannot be different types of climate of a particular place but the climate differs over vast geographical distances.
The climate of India is described as the Monsoon type climate. The word monsoon has arabic roots and is derived from the word ‘mausim’. This is because most of the weather is controlled by the monsoon winds. Also, there are two types of monsoon in India, the south-west monsoon and north-east monsoon or the retreating monsoon spreading from the months of May to December. Hence, the climate of India is essentially a Monsoon climate. Another impact of the monsoon Monsoon climate is that agriculture which is the main economic activity of India in terms of number of people employed, is highly dependent on the Monsoon climate. Therefore there are different types of vegetation in India, not different types of climate in India. There are no different types of climate in India rather only one climate which is the Monsoon climate.
The vegetation of India is also affected by the four seasons: Cold Weather Season or Winter, Hot Weather Season or Summer, South West Monsoon Season or Rainy Season, Season of Retreating Monsoons or Autumn.
The Particulars of the Fours Season are Explained below:
Cold Weather Season/Winter:
This is the time when the sun rays do not fall directly in the region causing low temperatures.
Hot Weather Season/Summer:
This is the time when the sun rays fall directly in the region leading to higher temperatures.
South West Monsoon Season/Rainy Season:
This is the season when rains are caused all over the country and mostly in the Northern, Eastern and Western regions due to the monsoon winds of the south-west winds.
Retreating Monsoon Season/Autumn:
The north east monsoon winds bring the monsoon rain in the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh during October to December.
From the given definition of climate and the concept of seasons in India, it is clear that the climate of India is Tropical Monsoon type and there are no different types of climate in India such as the temperate, desert/dry, polar, mediterranean, etc.
Vegetation of India and Wildlife of India
The vegetation of India includes a very diverse plant life. There are season specific plants in India and there are also all season plants in India. The variety of plants include small plants called bushes, shrubs like cactus, and many types of flowering plants, etc. There are tall trees as well showing diversity such as the neem and the mango being trees with many branches and leaves while there are trees like the palm trees with few leaves. Indian climate has a huge effect on the natural vegetation of India.
The vegetation of India can be divided into five kinds. They are: Tropical evergreen forests, tropical deciduous forests, thorny bushes, mountain vegetation and mangrove forests. These different types of vegetation in India exhibit different ecosystems and in turn a varied wildlife of the country. As mentioned above India climate vegetation and wildlife are all interconnected. Considering the example of altitude effect. So out of curiosity when asked how does altitude affects vegetation and wildlife, the answer is that the altitude affects the climate and temperature, which in turn affects the vegetation and hence, wildlife of the region. At very high altitudes temperatures are low and also the relief features are close to the clouds, causing a high degree of rain and that too sometimes throughout the year. Hence, the region has evergreen vegetation causing a distinct wildlife. Another example of wildlife being influenced by the climate is the wildlife of the tropical monsoon region of India. This wildlife includes monkeys, parrots, jaguar, lemurs, ocelots, hummingbirds, etc.
From the given information about the climate in India and the vegetation in India, it is clear how diverse and interconnected the three of them are. One can appreciate the diversity which is also represented by the six different biogeographical zones in India, the most any country usually has in the world.