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Climate of India

Last updated date: 21st Feb 2024
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What is the Climate of India?

India shows a wide variation in the climatic conditions ranging from snowfall in the Himalayan arch to burning heat in the south. The Himalayas and the Thar Desert have a great influence on the overall climatic conditions of the country. The Indian subcontinent is warmer than the other areas of the same altitude because the Himalayan Mountains block the central Asian katabatic winds. On the other hand, the Thar Desert attracts the southwest summer monsoon winds that are moist and provide the required rainfall in the months from June to October. There are four principal weather and climate of India, winter, summer, monsoon, and post-monsoon.


What are the Factors Affecting the Climate of India?

  1. Location

The Indian subcontinent stretches from 8°N to 37°N and is located to the north of the equator. Tropic of Cancer passes over the center of the country hence the southern areas are closer to the equator and experience higher temperatures. While the northern parts of the country experience lower temperatures comparatively. The temperatures are quite low during the winters. The presence of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, cause the right and left coasts of the country to be humid and mild. The Indian subcontinent is located north of the equator and stretches from 8°N to 37°N. Because the Tropic of Cancer passes through the center of the country, the southern areas are closer to the equator and have higher temperatures. The northern parts of the country, on the other hand, have lower temperatures. During the winter, temperatures are quite low. Because of the presence of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, the country's right and left coasts are humid and mild.

  1. Span from the Sea

The closer the regions are to the sea, the more humid is the climate. They experience moderate summers and mild winters. However, areas situated far away from the coastline, don't have any influence on the huge water body and hence experience extreme climatic conditions. Delhi for example has an annual temperature of 20° C whereas Kochi has about an average temperature of about  30°C. The climate becomes more humid as one gets closer to the sea. Summers are pleasant, and winters are mild. However, areas located far from the coastline do not influence the vast body of water and thus experience extreme climatic conditions. For example, Delhi has an annual temperature of 20° C, whereas Kochi has an average temperature of around 30° C.

  1. The Himalayan Mountains

These mountains are a climatic divider between Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. They do not allow the cold Central Asian winds to enter the continent, hence keeping it warmer than other regions. They also block south-west monsoon winds from entering the country's atmosphere. These mountains serve as a climatic barrier between Central Asia and India. They prevent cold Central Asian winds from entering the continent, keeping it warmer than other regions. They also keep the southwest monsoon winds out of the country's atmosphere.

  1. Pressure and Winds 

India has northeasterly winds flowing from the subtropical high-pressure belt of North towards the equatorial low-pressure areas. These winds carry very little moisture since they flow only over land. Hence they do not bring any rain to the county. On the other hand, during winters, from the high-pressure region of the northern Himalayas, cold dry winds flow into the continent towards the South. In summers this reverses and low pressure is created in interior Asia. Hence the southwest monsoon winds are originated and because these winds flow over the warm oceans they collect moisture and bring the majority of rainfall in the country. Northeasterly winds blow across India from the subtropical high-pressure belt to the equatorial low-pressure areas. Because they only blow over the land, these winds carry very little moisture. As a result, they do not bring rain to the county. During the winter, however, cold dry winds from the high-pressure region of the northern Himalayas flow into the continent from the south. This is reversed in the summer, resulting in low pressure in the interior of Asia. As a result, the southwest monsoon winds are formed, and because these winds blow over warm oceans, they collect moisture and bring the majority of the country's rainfall.


What do you mean by Climatic Controls? 

The factors that influence or control the contrast of weather in a particular region are called climatic controls. Climate controls are the factors that influence or control the contrast of weather in a specific region.


The following are India’s climate controls-

  • The dominant temperature of the region is determined by the country's geographical location on the latitude. Temperatures gradually decrease as we move from the equator to the poles, as we all know. Because the southern states are closer to the equator, they have higher temperatures, while the northern states have lower temperatures.

  • Temperature variations are caused by altitude, just as they are by distance from the equator. As a result, higher altitude regions in India have cooler climatic conditions.

  • The major factors that influence the climate of any region are pressure and winds. The northeasterly and southwest monsoon winds, for example, are responsible for the monsoon in India.

  • The temperature of a region is determined by the ocean currents that flow over it; warmer ocean currents warm the region, while moist ocean currents cool it.

  • The Himalayan Range is the country's most important relief barrier. It restricts the inflow of Central Asian winds to the peninsula's northern tip, keeping temperatures warmer than in other parts of Asia.

  • The geographical location on the latitude of the country decides the dominant temperature of the region. As we know, the temperatures gradually reduce when we move from the equator to the poles. Since the southern states are located closer to the equator they have high temperatures and the northern states have comparatively lower temperatures. 

  • Just like the distance from the equator causes variations in temperatures, the altitude also does. Hence regions at higher altitudes in India experience cooler climatic conditions. 

  • Pressure and Wind are the major factors that influence the climate of any region. For example, the northeasterly winds and southwest monsoon winds are responsible for the monsoon in India.

  • The ocean currents flowing over a region determine the Temperature of that region, warmer ocean currents make the region warmer, whereas moist ocean currents make it cooler. 

  • The Himalayan Range is the most important relief barrier of the country. It restricts the inflow of Central Asian winds to the northern part of the peninsula,  hence keeping the temperatures warmer than other regions of Asia.

FAQs on Climate of India

1. How does Altitude affect the climate of India?

The Himalayas and the Aravali ranges are two of India's most impressive mountain ranges. These massive structures are in charge of preventing winds and ocean currents from passing through them. As a result, they play an important role in the country's climatic conditions. Because the Himalayas block the central Asian katabatic winds, India has mild winters. Furthermore, as we move above sea level, temperatures begin to fall; thus, the altitude of a region determines its temperature.

2. What are the major types of climate in India?

Though most Indian climate information refers to the weather and climate of India as 'Monsoon type,' we can divide the country's climatic conditions into four major seasons. 

1. Winter: From December to February, India experiences moderate to severe winters. Temperatures in the northwest range between 10-15°C on average. Temperatures rise to around 20-25°C as we approach the equator.

2. Summer/Pre-monsoon: This season begins in March and lasts until May, with April being the hottest month with average temperatures ranging from 32 to 40 degrees Celsius.

3. Monsoon: This season, which lasts from June to September, is influenced by the Southwest Summer Monsoon. Northern areas receive less rainfall than southern areas.

4. Post-monsoon/Autumn: From October to November, this season is typically cloudless, except Tamil Nadu, which receives the majority of its rainfall during this time due to the retreating monsoon.

3. What are the factors affecting India’s climate? Elaborate. 

To know the answer to the above question visit Vedantu. Download free study material from on NCERT, CBSE, ICSE, IIT, JEE, Engineering and medical entrance exam materials in pdf format. 

4. What exactly is a 'loo'?

'Loo' refers to the strong, gusty, hot, dry winds that blow during the day over northern and northwestern India during the summer. The 'loo' is a prominent feature of the hot weather season, which lasts from April to June. Loo usually happens in the afternoon, but it can last until late in the evening.

5. What exactly is "October Heat"?

The months of October and November mark the transition from a hot rainy season to a dry winter. The end of the monsoon season is marked by clear skies and a temperature rise. The ground is still wet. The weather becomes oppressive as a result of the high temperature and humidity. This is commonly referred to as 'October Heat.'