To get a detailed meaning, let us first know about principal security. Loans that are secured by the mortgage of the assets are known as the principal or primary security. The security given in addition to the primary security is called Collateral Security. The term collateral security can be referred to as the assets given that a lender considers as security for the loan. This acts as a protection for the lender.
In any case, if the borrower fails to pay the amount of the money he took from the lender, the lender has all the rights for the collateral property offered to him by the borrower. Therefore, he has the right to seize it, sell it, and get the money to compensate for the unpaid portion of the loan.
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The collateral type generally depends on the loan type. Let us take a look at the collateral security examples. Suppose you take a loan for a car, the car is considered as the collateral security for the loan. Similarly, if you take a mortgage, then your home is considered as collateral.
For a business owner to take out the loans successfully, he should know about the types of collateral that are considered while borrowing.
If a company or a borrower fails to pay the money to the bank /lender, then they can use the Invoice as collateral. This can be done in two different ways one is factoring and the other is discounting.
In the case of the factoring method, the company approaches the lender and sells the unpaid invoice to them. Through this, the lender can be compensated by the amount of money he gets from the payments of the customers.
In the case of the discounting method, the company can get even ninety percent of the invoice worth. Here the repaid amount excludes the fee or interest while the payment is done to the bank or lender.
This is used by the private or small business that doesn't have access to the other options. Inventory financing means the credit that is obtained by the business to pay it beforehand for the products which are not sold.
Cash Secured Loan:
This is very commonly used and it works in a simple way. In a cash-secured loan what happens is, the bank will freeze your savings account or any other assets in share to that. After the payment of the debt, they will be available.
A debenture is defined as a debt instrument which is generally raised to meet the long-term capital needs. Debentures generally include stocks, bonds, and other security of the company. Generally, debentures are a secured mode of investing in a company because if we invest in shares, then the interest has to be paid. In this, a company can issue a debenture as collateral security for the loan. In legal terms, it is defined as the documents which generate liability. This is just considered as collateral security. It has no impact on your balance sheet. If the repayment is not made by the company, then the bank will take it. This is considered as a debenture issue.
During the period, the company has a fixed interest to the lender/creditor. Generally, the creditors take a part or complete asset possessed by the company in case if it fails to repay the amount taken.
The accounting treatment for the debentures issued as collateral security generally consists of two methods, which are given below.
While issuing the debentures as collateral security, the companies won't make any general entry in the account books. Rather than that, it spends the note below the liabilities in the balance sheet. Doing this indicates that the issue of debentures has secured the loan.
In this method, the debentures issued as collateral security is noted in the journal. On the asset side of the balance sheet, the Debenture Suspense account should appear. On the liability side, the Debentures should appear. The entry will get reversed once the company repays the loan to cancel it.
Debentures are called robust debt instruments of a company as they can create a win-win situation for both borrowers and lenders. The rate of interest paid on the dividend share is more than when compared to the rate of interest paid on the debenture. Due to this advantage, many companies prefer to issue debentures as the fixed rate of interest associated with them irrespective of any changes made in the price levels.
1) What is the Meaning of 'Debenture Issued as Collateral Security'?
Ans: The term collateral security means additional or secondary security for the loan taken from the lender. Usually, when the company takes out a loan from any financial institution, they generally give debentures as collateral security. The lender to whom these are given is not entitled to pay the interest amount of these debentures.
In any case, if the borrower or the company fails to pay the amount (loan ) or interest of the loan the lender has the full rights to take the principal security and compensate the amount, if it is not sufficient then the lender can have the debentures issued as collateral to recover the amount.
2) What are the Types of Debentures based on Security Issues?
Ans: Based on security debentures are classified into two parts mainly secured debentures and unsecured debentures.
Secured Debentures: In this, if the debentures are secured, it is backed up the collaterals. It can also be defined as the lender will receive insurance if the borrower fails to pay the taken amount. If the borrower can't repay them, then the lender can recover it by acquiring the assets owned by the borrower.
Unsecured Debentures: This is referred to as when debt security is issued by a company or government. It is not secured by the assets rather by all issuer's assets which are not secured.