There are various forms of government present in the World. Some follow an absolute monarchy system, some follow presidential or parliamentary or some follow another form of government. India follows the parliamentary system of government. In this article, we'll learn about the Union Parliament of India and the various functions of the Union Parliament. Before understanding this concept, we'll need to discuss first the Parliamentary System of Government.
What is the Parliamentary System?
It is a form of government where there are two executives as the head. One is a nominal head and the other is the real head. The President acts as a Nominal head of the country which is also known as "de jure head" whereas the Prime Minister acts as a real head of the government which is also known as "de facto head". Examples of this form of government are the United Kingdom, Japan and Germany.
India also adopted a Parliamentary System of Government as per the Constitution of the country both at the union and state levels. Here, the government of the country has three spheres as shown in the following diagram:
Article 74 and Article 75 deals with the Union Parliament at the center level. It is the highest law-making body in the country. It is said to be a place where elected representatives from different regions sit together and make laws for the country with proper debates and discussions.
Union Parliament is made up of:
Council of States which is also known as Rajya Sabha.
House of the People which is also called Lok Sabha.
The President of the country.
All these three play a vital role in the law-making process of the Parliament.
First of all, a bill is introduced in Parliament.
Parliamentary committees are being made.
Debates and discussions are being done on the bill.
When both the houses pass the bill, then the bill is sent to the President for assent.
After the President's accent, a bill becomes an act and a law of the land.
What are the Functions of Union Parliament?
Part V of the Constitution of India deals with the functions of the Union Parliament. These functions are written below :
Legislative Functions: Union Parliament works as the highest law-making body in the country. The seventh schedule of the constitution provides three lists i.e Union List, State list and Concurrent list. Union Parliament makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union list and Concurrent list. It also makes laws on the state list's subjects in some conditions.
Executive Functions: After making laws, the duty of implementation is on the executive branch of the government. Executive and legislative branches are interdependent. Parliament keeps checking on the executive and the executive keeps checking on the legislatures. For example, a no-confidence motion can be passed by the legislatures in the Union Parliament to remove the Prime Minister along with his cabinet.
Judicial Functions: Union Parliament also acts as a Judicial structure in a lot of matters. Legislatures have Parliamentary Privileges. If these privileges are breached, then the Union Parliament also has punitive powers to punish. Not only this, but it also plays a judicial function while removing the President, the Vice President, the judges of the Supreme Court or High Court, etc.
There are various other functions of the Union Parliament besides the above-mentioned functions. These are written below:
The Parliament has amendment powers. They can change the Constitution of India by following the established procedure.
The Parliament and its legislatures participate in the elections of the President and the Vice President.
They also have the power to remove the President and the Vice President bypassing the resolution.
Not only this, at the center level the Parliament is the only authority with respect to the finances of the country. Not even a single rupee can be spent by the executive without the approval of the Parliament.
The Union Parliament also presents the budget of the country before the end of the financial year.
The emergency is also implemented in the country with the approval of the Parliament.
Did You know?
The Parliament of India is situated in the capital city of the country and it was designed by the British architect Sir E. Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912-13 but the construction started in 1921 and was Completed in 1927.
History of the Parliament
The French philosopher Montesquieu, in his book The Spirit of the Law, offered the idea of a separation of powers. He divided the state into three categories: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary.
Parliament is the legislative body of a union government and therefore is central to India's democratic political system. In addition, there are various forms of government in the world. Some follow a complete system of monarchy while others follow a form of government or parliament. India follows the form of Parliamentary government based on the United Kingdom model Westminster both institutionally and nationally.
Plan of Parliament
The parliamentary system is based on the principle of cooperation and cooperation between the legislature and the executive while the presidential system is based on the doctrine of the separation of powers between the two parties. The parliamentary government is also known as the cabinet government or the responsible government or model of the Westminster government and is very common in Britain, Japan, Canada, India.
Features of Parliament
The characteristics of a parliamentary government in India are: (a) The presence of ordinary and real directors, namely, the President acting as the executive, while the Prime Minister is the actual executive (b) the party law, (c) the collective responsibility of the executive. in the legislature, (d) Membership of ministers in the legislature etc. In the Constitution of India, Sections 74 and 75 deal with the parliamentary process at the Center and Article 163 and 164 in the provinces.
The State Parliament includes:
The United Nations is also known as Rajya Sabha (upper house).
People's House is also called Lok Sabha (basement).
President of the country.
The President is regarded as an integral part of Parliament because all laws become effective actions only with the approval of the President.
The Legislative Process in Parliament: -
First, a bill is introduced in Parliament by a Member of Parliament.
Subsequently, Parliamentary committees were formed to analyze and understand aspects of the bill and to seek the opinion of experts.
Debates and discussions are held on this bill.
Once both houses have passed the bill, the bill is sent to the President for ratification.
After the President's speech, the bill becomes an act and a law of the land.
Functions of a Coalition Parliament -
Part V of the Constitution of India deals with the functions of the Union Parliament. These activities are listed below:
1) Powers of the Law- All the articles in our constitution are divided into a list of states, a union and a corresponding list in Schedule 7. The Union Parliament operates as the highest legislative body in the country. It makes laws about unions and related lists. In the corresponding list, the law of Parliament passes the law of the national legislature. The Constitution also has the power to make laws in relation to the national legislature under the following circumstances: It also makes laws on the subjects of the state list in some cases.
2) Executive Authority- According to the form of government of parliament, the executive is responsible for the actions of parliament and its policies. Parliament, therefore, controls in various ways such as committees, question hours, zero-hours etc. ministers are jointly responsible to Parliament.
3) Financial Stability - Includes budgeting, reviewing government performance in terms of expenditure by finance committees (back budget control)
4) Powers of the Constitution - Union Only Parliament has the power to amend the Constitution.
5) Power of Justice- Includes:
(a) Accusing the President of violating the constitution
(b) Removal of judges in both the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court
(c) Removal of Deputy President
(d) Punish members for violating rights such as living in a house where the member knows he or she is not a suitable member, acting as a member before swearing etc.
Good Qualities of a Parliamentary Program
1. Consensus Between the Legislature and the Executive: - A major benefit of the parliamentary system is that it ensures harmonious relations and cooperation between the legislature and the executive. The executive is part of the legislature and they both depend on each other in the work.
2. Blocking Dictatorship and Dictatorship: - Under this system, the executive authority is vested in a group of people (ministerial council) and not just one person.
3. In a parliamentary system, the executive consists of a group of people (that is, ministers who represent the people).
Bad Conditions in the Parliamentary Government
1. Unstable Government: The parliamentary system does not provide for a stable government. There is no guarantee that the government will survive in its place. A proposal of mistrust or political dissent or the evils of a multi-party coalition can destabilize the government. The government was led by Moarji Desai, Charan Singh, V.P. Singh, Chandra Sekhar, Deva Gowda and I.K. Gujral is one such example.
2. No Policy Implementation: - The parliamentary process is not conducive to the formulation and implementation of long-term policies. This is due to the uncertainty of the term of government. Changes in the ruling party are often followed by changes in government policies.
3. Cabinet dictatorship: - If the ruling party enjoys a full majority in Parliament, the cabinet becomes dictatorial and exercises almost unlimited power.
An Important Fact
The Indian Parliament is located in the capital of the country and was designed by British architects Sir E. Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912-13 but began construction in 1921 and was completed in 1927.