There are various forms of government present in the World. Some follow an absolute monarchy system, some follow presidential or parliamentary or some follow another form of government. India follows the parliamentary system of government. In this article, we'll learn about the Union Parliament of India and various functions of Union Parliament. Before understanding this concept, we'll need to discuss first about the Parliamentary System of Government.
What is Parliamentary System?
It is a form of government where there are two executives as the head. One is a nominal head and the other is the real head. The President acts as a Nominal head of the country which is also known as "de jure head" whereas the Prime Minister acts as a real head of the government which is also known as "de facto head". Examples of this form of government are the United Kingdom, Japan and Germany.
India also adopted a Parliamentary System of Government as per the Constitution of the country both at the union and state levels. Here, the government of the country has three spheres as shown in the following diagram:
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Article 74 and Article 75 deals with the Union Parliament at the centre level. It is the highest law-making body in the country. It is said to be a place where elected representatives from different regions sit together and make laws for the country with proper debates and discussions.
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Union Parliament is made up of:
Council of States which is also known as Rajya Sabha.
House of the People which is also called as Lok Sabha.
The President of the country.
All these three plays a vital role in the law-making process of the Parliament.
First of all, a bill is introduced in Parliament.
Parliamentary committees are being made.
Debates and discussions are being done on the bill.
When both the houses pass the bill, then the bill is sent to the President for assent.
After President's accent, a bill becomes an act and a law of the land.
What are The Functions of Union Parliament?
Part V of the Constitution of India deals with the functions of the Union Parliament. These functions are written below :
Union Parliament works as the highest law-making body in the country. The seventh schedule of the constitution provides three lists i.e Union List, State list and Concurrent list. Union Parliament makes laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union list and Concurrent list. It also makes laws on the state list's subjects in some conditions.
After making laws, the duty of implementation is on the executive branch of the government. Executive and legislative branches are interdependent on each other. Parliament keeps check on the executive and the executive keeps checking on the legislatures. For example, no-confidence motion can be passed by the legislatures in the Union Parliament to remove the Prime Minister along with his cabinet.
Union Parliament also acts as a Judicial structure in a lot of matters. Legislatures have Parliamentary Privileges. If these privileges are breached, then Union Parliament also has punitive powers to punish. Not only this, but it also plays a judicial function while removing the President, the Vice President, the judges of the Supreme Court or High Court, etc.
There are various other functions of the Union Parliament besides the above-mentioned functions. These are written below:
The Parliament has amendment powers. They can change the Constitution of India by following the established procedure.
The Parliament and its legislatures participate in the elections of the President and the Vice President.
They also have the power to remove the President and the Vice President by passing the resolution.
Not only this, at the centre level the Parliament is the only authority with respect to the finances of the country. Not even a single rupee can be spent by the executive without the approval of the Parliament.
The Union Parliament also present the budget of the country before the end of the financial year.
The emergency is also implemented in the country with the approval of the Parliament.
Did You Know?
The Parliament of India is situated in the capital city of the country and it was designed by the British architect Sir E. Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912-13 but the construction actually started in 1921 and Completed in 1927.
We have read the summary of the Union Parliament. Let's read some FAQs.