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Urban Administration in India

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Introduction

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As we all know, we have both rural areas and urban areas. When we talk about urban areas, these are categorized as developed with all the necessities along with infrastructure. Both the towns and the cities come under this category. But when we concentrate on the development of urban areas, a question may arise, who will take care of the responsibility of providing various facilities to the urban people? The only answer is a municipal corporation. It is divided into several departments and distributed their duties and responsibilities. Let's have a detailed look at this.


What is the Urban Administration in India?

The Urban Administration is also known as municipal governance. It takes care of all the duties which seek the comfortability of people living in urban areas. It takes care of the responsibility like a sweeper sweeping the streets early in the morning to switch on the street lights during the night. The first urban administration started in Madras in 1687. Later in 1726, the Calcutta municipal corporation and the Bombay municipal corporation had formed. As of now, The BMC is the largest municipal corporation in India.

If we observe the difference between rural and Urban Administration in India, the rural areas are further divisions of districts. As the geographical area and density of population are less, the rural administration can create a local body with the name of the gram panchayat.

The Urban Administration in India look after the following - 

  • It maintains effective, responsive, democratic, accountable local governance.

  • It encourages local citizens to participate in various development programs and take up key roles in the local bodies.

  • It always strives to maintain transparency among the people and authorities of municipal corporations. 

  • Even though the population is more than 5000 in every Urban area, the Urban Administration stood strong and worked for the economical, financial, legal, and more functionalities.

By this, we can understand why urban administration is important. 


Structure of Urban Administration in India 

The structure of urban administration or multiple governance May consists of various departments and people. They are as follows- 


Municipal Corporation

It is the largest and topmost local body in urban administration. If the city contains more than three lakhs people, then the state government will create a municipal corporation for that city and give authority to look after the city. The people of that particular area may reach out to this municipal corporation for any kind of queries related to that area.


What is the Difference Between the Municipal Council and the Municipal Corporation?

Both the municipal council and municipal corporation work on the same principle. But the only difference between a municipal corporation and a municipal council is the size of that particular urban area. If the area contains more than three lakh people, as we discussed above, the multiple governances can be looked after by municipal corporations. If the size of the urban area is less than 3 lakh people, then the local body created by the state government is the municipal council.


Personnel in Urban Administration

The municipal commissioner is the highest Authority of urban Administration. The state government elects an Indian administrative service officer for this designation and provides the required power to develop municipal corporations. Next, the mayor and the deputy mayor are elected by the members of the municipality commission. Their tenure is one year, and they are treated as honour heads to discuss various issues and attend multiple meetings.

  • In both municipal corporations and municipal councils, the town can be divided into multiple wards. The responsibility of each ward will be taken by a ward member or a ward councillor. The ward people can elect the word counsellor, and issues like electricity, drainage, spreading of diseases, awareness programs, etc., were brought to their notice.

  • If the issue is a generalized one for multiple watts, the word councillors May create a word committee, and all the councillors can have a debate on resolving the issue.

What is the Difference Between the Municipality and Municipal Corporation 

The municipal corporation is a legal body of urban administration for cities that have more population. But the municipality is a legal body created for the urban areas with a population of around 1 lakh people. The head of the municipality is either a president or a chairman. Apart from the size of the urban area, the differences between the municipality and municipal corporation are not much.


Conclusion

Hence the urban Administration in India plays a vital role in the development of cities and towns. Even though the cities were developed much when compared to rural areas, the municipal governments took them forward to develop more. The metropolitan cities were the best example of the effectiveness of urban Administration in India.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Municipal Act?

Ans. The municipalities act came into existence in 1992 due to the 74th amendment act. It provides a new structure for the municipal system. It is a three-tier structure to look after the urban areas more effectively. This three-tier municipal system is similar to that of the Panchayati Raj system of rural areas. According to the municipalities' act and the 12th schedule of the constitution, the municipalities may have a set of 18 functionalities. While electing the people to the municipalities, the reservation categories provided high priority. This municipalities act is also known as the Nagar Palika Act. The main motto of this act is for the transparency and the growth of urban areas.

2. What are the Major Functions of a Municipal Corporation?

Ans. The major functions of a municipal corporation are as follows- 

  • Providing drinking water facility.

  • It concentrates on giving basic amenities.

  • It is involved in City development programs.

  • It focuses on growing trees, preventing the spreading of viral diseases, cleaning the drainage, etc.

  • It regulates the constructions.

  • It maintains transparency in law and order.

  • Electricity supply, water supply, other necessities but also be considered.

  • It also gives importance to the birth and death registrations, burial facilities, and crematorium.

  • Several additional responsibilities like growing plants, maintaining cleanliness, road expansion, welfare activities, etc. implemented.