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Rural Administration in India

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Rural Administration Introduction

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India is a big country that is divided into multiple divisions such as states or Union Territories, districts, tehsil or taluk, and villages or cities. Our country is composed of several villages. A village is an area which is underdeveloped or is not that much developed as compared to the urban areas and where all the facilities are not there in a sufficient manner and where agriculture and other allied activities are considered as the main livelihood. There are several villages under one district. How all these villages are managed? We will see below how the rural administration in India works in this article.

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Rural Administration Meaning

Rural is an area that is not a part of the Urban area and which is not yet developed and modernized as compared to urban areas and the administration is the management of activities or affairs of an organization or the public at large. Thus, the Rural administration is the management of activities or public affairs at the rural level by some authorities.

Rural Administration Definition

The integrated management of the rural areas with several divisions and authorities is known as rural administration.

Chapter Story: A Quarrel in the Village

The chapter begins with the story of Mohan and Raghu, both farmers who owned adjacent lands separated by a small boundary called the bund. One day, Raghu shifted his border to include some of Mohan's land. Then Mohan decided to ask Raghu, he denied the allegations and had Mohan beaten up with the help of his workmen.

Role of Police

Chapter Story: Area of the Police Station

With nothing left to do, Mohan went to the local police station with eye-witnesses to lodge a formal complaint. Although he knew that Raghu might have influenced the local police, he couldn't even register a complaint at some other police station because every police station has a specific area under his control. Every individual residing in a specific area may report cases or inform the local police of any theft, accident, injury, conflict, etc. It is the responsibility of the police station of that area to interrogate, investigate and take action on cases within its area.

Chapter Story: The Work at Police Station

Although the police did not initially believe Mohan, the case was filed on the protests of other villagers. It would have been possible to resolve this argument more peacefully if records were maintained about who owned how much land in the village. Comparing land records with current measurements would have proved that Raghu took up Mohan's land.

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The Role of the Police in the Administration is mentioned below in Points:

  • Police help in solving the conflicts between the two parties in the village.

  • We can file a complaint by directly going to the police station in our area.

  • The police of your areas have to interrogate, investigate and take action on cases within the area.

  • The maintenance of law and order in the area is the duty of the police.

But sometimes, things do not go the right way. People sometimes are scared to go to the police station and file a complaint. If someone files a complaint, the big landlords convince the Police personnel. In some cases, the police also work inefficiently and do not file the complaints of poor people.

Role of Patwari

Maintenance of Land Records: Assessing the land and maintenance of the record is the primary job of the Patwari who is known by different names in different states. In certain villages, such officers are known as Lekhpal-Kanungo or Karamchari or Village Officer, and so on. 

  • Each Patwari is responsible for a cluster of villages and maintains and updates the village records.

  •  It has means of measuring agricultural fields. A long chain is often used in many places. 

  • Patwari is responsible for coordinating the collection of land revenue from farmers and delivers the government with details on crops grown in the area.

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Role of Tehsildar or Talukdar

Who keeps a check on the patwari? Each state in India is divided into districts for land-related management, and these districts are also subdivided. These district subdivisions are known by various names, such as tehsil, taluka, and so on. Tehsildar is called the head of the tehsil whereas Talukdar is the head of the taluk. 

  • They make sure that data is properly maintained and land revenues are collected. 

  • They also ensure that farmers easily receive a copy of their records and students obtain their caste certificates and much more. 

  • The Tehsildar office is where the land dispute issues are heard.

  • They keep checking on officers subordinate like patwari.

  • They maintain law and order.

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Role of District Collector

They are the head at the district level who are above the Tehsildar or Talukdar and supervise the whole district under them. Mostly they get this post by clearing one of India's toughest examinations of UPSC and by becoming IAS officers. 

  • They control and supervise all the villages under them.

  • They maintain law and order in the whole district.

  • They implement government laws and policies and programs in the district.

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A New Law

Farmers who own land are often men, while women work on the farm but do not own agricultural land. In some regions, Hindu women have not acquired a share of the family's agricultural land. After the father’s death, the property is divided equally between the sons. The law has recently been changed. According to the new legislation, sons, daughters, and mothers have an equal share of land and the same law applies to all States and Union territories of the country. A huge proportion of women will benefit from this law.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act (2005): 

This Act was passed to eliminate the gender discriminatory provisions of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 and to grant the following rights to daughters under Section 6: The daughter of a coparcener (joint-heir) by birth becomes a coparcener by right in the same way as the son. The daughter has the same rights in the coparcener's property as she would have had if she had been a son. 

Conclusion

Thus, in this article, we have learned about rural administration in India.  We have covered the whole rural administration introduction and have learned what are rural areas and what administration means and how rural administration works. As we know, there are two aspects of every country. First is Rural and the other is Urban, where Urban areas are much developed and have all the facilities with a lot of livelihood opportunities whereas the underdeveloped areas or the rural area, the population is much dependent on agriculture and other activities. We have learned rural administration meaning, rural administration definition, the role of police, patwari, tehsildar or talukdar, district collector, and related law which helps in the administration of the rural areas. This article will help the students of Class 6 in getting the basic idea of administration in the rural areas of the country.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question1. Give Rural Administration Definition. Explain the Role of Patwari.

Answer. The integrated management of the rural areas with several divisions and authorities is known as rural administration. Maintenance of Land Records is the main function of patwari in which assessment of the land and record keeping is the primary job. He is known by different names in different states. In certain villages, such officers are known as Lekhpal-Kanungo or Karamchari or Village Officer, and so on. Each Patwari is responsible for a cluster of villages and maintains and updates the village records. It has means of measuring agricultural fields. He is responsible for coordinating the collection of land revenue from farmers and delivers the government with details on crops grown in the area.

Question2. What is the Role of Tehsildar and District Collector?

Answer. Tehsildar is called the head of the tehsil whereas Talukdar is the head of the taluk. They make sure that data is properly maintained and that land revenues are collected whereas they also ensure that farmers can easily receive a copy of their records and that students can obtain their caste certificates and much more. The Tehsildar office is where land dispute issues are heard. They keep checking on officers subordinate to them like patwari. District collectors are the heads at the district level who are above the tehsildar or talukdar and supervise the whole district under them. They control and supervise all the villages under them. They implement government laws and policies and programs in the district. Both these officers maintain law and order in their respective regions.