The Political Executive is elected for a specific period by the people. This article talks about the Executive process in Political Science. In this, we will learn about the Executive, the importance of Executive in government, Political Executive or example of the Political Executive, etc. These notes will help in understanding the concept of Political Executive for Civics and Political Science students.
Meaning of Executive
The Executive is one of the important branches of the government without which a government can not function. It implements all the laws or policies framed by the Parliament or the Legislative Assemblies. It also implements various programmes or schemes launched by the government. For example, the Prime Minister and the President, the Chief Minister and the Governor, IAS, IPS, IFS, etc.
Importance of Executive in Government
The formation of laws and policies is useless if the Executive does not implement them.
They work on all levels, i.e. National, State, District and Local levels.
They find out the problems and the solutions to them.
They also keep checking on the legislatures.
Political Executives are those Executives which are representatives of the people and are elected by the people through an electoral process. They are elected for a certain period i.e five years.
Example of Political Executive
Following are the examples of the Political Executives:
Head of the country, mostly the monarch or the supreme leader or the President, etc. In India, the Head of the country is the President.
Head of the government, mostly the Prime Minister of the country, is the actual head.
Other Ministers like Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State, Ministers of States with independent charge, etc.
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Features of Political Executive
The features of the Political Executives are given below:
They are the elected representatives of the people.
They hold the positions of nominal and real heads of the country.
They receive their powers from the citizens of the country through elections.
They are only elected for a certain period i.e five years. After five years, they again need to fight elections.
They are answerable to the people. Any decision of the Political Executives can attract criticism from the people.
They are considered very powerful.
They implement the policies or laws, made by the Parliament of the nation.
The Executive keeps checking on the legislatures as well.
The Prime Minister is one of the most important political institutions in the country. They are not directly elected but appointed by the President of the country. The President cannot make any person of his choice as the Prime Minister of the country. Any Political party or coalition of parties that hold a majority in the Lok Sabha, becomes the ruling party of the country. The President appoints the candidate of the ruling party as the Prime Minister.
After the appointment of the Prime Minister, other ministers are also appointed by the President but on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is free to choose the ministers, as long as they are members of the Parliament.
Powers of Prime Minister
Various powers of the Prime Minister are given below:
The Prime Minister can recommend the names of the ministers for his cabinet to the President. The President then appoints the Recommended candidates.
The Prime Minister also can choose any person who is not a member of the Parliament but on one condition, i.e. he has to join one of the houses of the Parliament within 6 months of his appointment.
He can decide which ministry is to be given to which minister.
He can change the ministry of any minister anytime.
He is the chairman of the meetings of the Council of Ministers.
He also acts as chairman or head of the various national bodies or institutions or committees.
Council of Ministers
The Council of Ministers includes all the ministers. It is a body that has around 60 to 80 ministers of different ranks.
Cabinet Ministers are those top-level ministers who hold all the major ministries of the country and assist the Prime Minister. It comprises 20 members.
Ministers of State with Independent Charge are the ministers who hold small ministries. They only attend meetings of the Council of Ministers when specifically specified.
Ministers of State are there to assist the Cabinet Ministers.
The President is said to be the head of the country, who is also known as the nominal head or de jure head of the Indian State. The Presidency is the highest position of the nation and the President is called the first citizen of the country. Article 52 to Article 62 of the Constitution of India deals with the President. He is considered a part of the Union Executive. The President is not directly elected by the people. To win the election, a candidate standing up for the post of the President must receive a majority of votes from Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs).
Powers of The President
The President has a lot of powers, which of them are written below:
All the major appointments of the country are done by him.
He is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces.
He has the power to summon or prorogue the parliament and also can dissolve the Lok Sabha.
12 members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the President.
He lays down various reports before the Parliament and also has emergency powers.
He also has the power to pardon someone.
The Judiciary system of a country plays an important role in making laws, settling disputes and controlling the behavior of citizens, so it becomes very essential to understand the working of the system. The judicial system of India is a critical part of the government. It is a sensitive department that provides justice to the people.
Indian Judiciary comprises the following:
A Supreme Court for the entire nation
High Courts in the states
The courts at the local level
In India, the Judiciary plays a major role in the entire political system. The Judiciary is the ultimate authority of law in the country, and its power is almost equal to that of the parliament. The constitution has provided for a three-tier judicial system–at the district level, at the state level and finally at the Supreme Court of India.
The independence of the Judiciary means that it is not subject to legislative or Executive influence. The judges do not act on orders from the government or under the wishes of the ruling party.
Power of Judiciary
The Judiciary has the following powers:
The Supreme Court and the High Courts can interpret the Constitution of the country.
When challenged in court, they can evaluate the constitutional legality of any law or Executive action in the country. It is referred to as judicial review.
The Supreme Court of India has also held that Parliament cannot change the Constitution's basic principles.