This article talks about the executive process in Political Science. In this, we will learn about the executive, the importance of executive in government, political executive or example of the political executive, etc. These notes will help in understanding the concept of Political Executive for Civics and Political Science students.
Meaning of Executive
The executive is one of the important branches of the government without which a government can not function. It implements all the laws or policies framed by the Parliament or the Legislative Assemblies. It also implements various programmes or schemes launched by the government. For example, the Prime Minister and the President, the Chief Minister and the Governor, IAS, IPS, IFS, etc.
Importance of Executive in Government
The formation of laws and policies are useless if they are not implemented by the Executive.
They work on all levels ie. National, State, District and Local levels.
They find out the problems and the solutions to them.
They also keep check on the legislatures.
Political executives are those executives which are representatives of the people and are elected by the people through an electoral process. They are elected for a certain period i.e five years.
Example of Political Executive
Following are the examples of the political executives:
Head of the country, mostly the monarch or the supreme leader or the President, etc. In India, the Head of the country is the President.
Head of the government, mostly the Prime Minister of the country who is the real head.
Other Ministers like Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State, Ministers of States with independent charge, etc.
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Features of Political Executive
The features of the political executives are given below:
They are the elected representatives of the people.
They hold the positions of nominal and real heads of the country.
They receive their powers from the citizens of the country through elections.
They are only elected for a certain period of time i.e five years. After five years, they again need to fight elections.
They are answerable to the people. Any decision of the political executives can attract criticism from the people.
They are considered to be very powerful.
They implement the policies or laws made by the Parliament of the nation.
The executive keeps checking on the legislatures as well.
The Prime Minister is one of the most important political executives who are not directly elected but appointed by the President of the country. The President cannot make any person of his choice as the Prime Minister of the country. Any Political party or coalition of parties that hold a majority in the Lok Sabha, becomes the ruling party of the country. The President appoints the candidate of the ruling party as the Prime Minister.
After the appointment, other ministers are also appointed by the President but on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Powers of Minister Minister
Various powers of the Prime Minister are given below:
The Prime Minister can recommend the names of the ministers for his cabinet to the President. The President then appoints the Recommended candidates.
The Prime Minister also can choose any person who is not a member of the Parliament but on one condition i.e he has to join one of the houses of the Parliament within 6 months of his appointment.
He can decide which ministry is to be given to which Minister.
He can change the ministry of any Minister anytime.
He is the chairman of the meetings of the council of ministers.
He also acts as chairman or head of the various national bodies or Institutions or committees.
Council of Ministers
The Council of Ministers is a body that has around 60 to 80 ministers of different ranks.
Cabinet Ministers are those top-level ministers who hold all the major ministries of the country and assist the Prime Minister.
Ministers of State with Independent Charge are the ministers who hold small ministries. They only attend meetings of the council of ministers when especially specified.
Ministers of State are there to assist the cabinet ministers.
President is said to be the head of the country who is also known as the nominal head or de jure head of the Indian State. The Presidency is the highest position of the nation and the President is called as the first citizen of the country. Article 52 to Article 62 of the Constitution of India deals with the President. He is considered to be the part of Union Executive.
Powers of The President
The President has a lot of powers which of them are written below:
All the major appointments of the country are done by him.
He is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces.
He has the power to summon or prorogues the parliament and also can dissolve the Lok Sabha.
12 members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the President.
He lays down various reports before the Parliament and also has emergency powers.
He also has the power to pardon someone.
We have read the summary of the political executive. Let's practice some FAQs: