The Constitution of India

The Indian Constitution is considered the supreme Indian law. This frames the fundamental principles of politics, practices, procedures, powers, rights, and government duties. Every person must have a good introduction to the Constitution of India as it imparts Constitutional supremacy instead of parliamentary supremacy. The Constituent Assembly and not the Parliament has created the Constitution of India. This gets adopted by the Indian citizens, and the Parliament can't override it. According to the Constitution, India is a secular, socialist, sovereign, and democratic republic, and it assures its citizens' various things, like liberty, equality, and justice. 

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Commencement of the Indian Constitution 

When the Indian Constitution came into existence, it had 395 articles, and they were split into eight schedules and 22 parts. This comprised nearly 145,000 words, and so, it turned into the 2nd largest active Constitution worldwide. Today, it has a preamble, 25 parts with 12 schedules, 101 amendments, 448 articles, and five appendices. 

Earlier legislation of the Constitution of India 

The introduction to the Constitution of India has been drawn from various sources. Being mindful of the conditions and needs of India, its framers did borrow features from earlier legislation like the Govt. of India Act of 1858, The Indian Council Acts of 1892, 1861, and 1909, the Govt. of India Acts 1935 and 1919, and the Indian Independence Act of 1947. The latter resulted in the formation of two countries; India and Pakistan. It also split the earlier Constituent Assembly into two parts. Every new assembly possessed sovereign power for drafting as well as enacting a novice Constitution for distinct states.

What do you mean by Indian Constitution?

Though the definition of Indian Constitution is vast, every Indian should know the meaning of Indian Constitution and the worth of the introduction to the Constitution. It is vast and has several areas that all the citizens of India must be familiar with. Every law aspirant must be aware of the introduction to the Constitution of India extremely well because it forms the fundamentals of his profession and education. 

The Offering of the Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India provides many Fundamental rights to its Citizens, and They are:

  • Right to freedom

  • Right to equality

  • Right to freedom of religion

  • Right against exploitation

  • Educational and Cultural rights

  • Rights to Constitutional remedies

All the rights that the Constitution of India provides are justiciable, and people have every right to move the High Courts and the Supreme Court when their rights are encroached upon. Nonetheless, the Indian Fundamental Rights aren't absolute as reasonable restrictions can get imposed too. In the 42nd Amendment that was done in 1976, fundamental duties were included in the Constitution, and their purpose was to remind people that besides enjoying their rights as citizens, they must also carry on their duties as duties and rights are correlative.

Facts of Indian Constitution

There are some interesting facts about the Indian Constitution besides the details of a few sections and articles. Students who have been tossing with the idea of pursuing higher education in law should revise the overview of Indian Constitution. These facts are the following:

  • The Indian Constitution is the most voluminous and longest Constitution worldwide.

  • The Preamble of the Constitution of India got inspiration from the Constitution and preamble of the USA.

  • The actual copies of the Constitution of India weren't printed or typed. They were written by hand, and now they are kept in the Indian Parliament's library.

  • Prem Bihari Narain Raizada wrote the actual copies of the Indian Constitution.

  • The Indian Constitution recognizes some fundamental rights, and they were embraced from the American Constitution's fundamental rights.

  • 283 members signed the original Indian Constitution, and they belonged to the Constituent Assembly.

  • The Indian Constitution is regarded as one of the most honoured and best Constitutions worldwide.

  • The idea of the 5-year plan was inspired by the USSR or Soviet Union's five planning commission.

  • There are nearly 2.18 crore unresolved cases in the distinct as well as Indian high courts.

  • Originally, the Indian Constitution was written in Hindi and English.

  • The English variety of the Constitution of India has 1,17,369 words.

  • Various artists who hailed from Shantiniketan had decorated the pages of the Indian Constitution.

  • On 9th December 1946, the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place.

  • It took nearly three years to write and complete the Indian Constitution.

  • Nearly 2000 amendments were made in the initial draft of the Indian Constitution.

  • On 24th January 1950, the Indian Constitution was signed.

  • On 26th January 1950, the Indian Constitution was enforced legally.

  • The Constitution of India borrowed many things from the Constitutions of different nations, like the USA, the USSR, France, Germany, Japan, etc. 

  • In the year 2019, there were just 103 amendments that were made in the Indian Constitution since the time it was enforced.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What does the Constitution of India Propose?

Ans: The Indian Constitution proposes a Parliamentary type of govt. That is structurally federal with some unitary characteristics. The President of India is considered the Constitutional head. According to Article 79 of the Indian Constitution, the council of the Union Parliament comprises two Houses, recognized as the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States and the President besides the Lok Sabha or the House of the People. According to Article 74(1) of the Indian Constitution, the Prime Minister should have a Council of Minister, and he has the right to advise and aid the President. The President will exercise his functions according to the advice. Thus, it can be said that the Council of Ministers can exercise the real executive power, and the Prime Minister will act as its head.

2. What are the autonomous institutions of India?

Ans: The Indian Constitution has set up many autonomous institutions, and they perform vital functions. 

  • Election Commission – The election commission remains liable to hold fair and free elections.

  • Auditor General – Auditor General, remains responsible for conducting an independent audit of govt. and its agencies' accounts.

  • Public Service Commission – The PSC remains liable to select candidates to the chief offices of the government.

One of the major strengths of the Indian Constitution is it works as a dynamic instrument, and it does evolve with time by Amendment or interpretation. When on paper, the Indian Constitution's Amendment turns into a tough affair, and it requires nearly 2/3rds of the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha members for passing it.