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What are Alcohols?

Alcohols are the compounds that have one or more hydroxyl groups bonded to aliphatic carbon atoms while phenols are the compounds which have one or more hydroxyl groups bonded to the aryl carbon atoms. All types of alcohol have a hydroxyl group in it. Some of the alcohols have many important applications in day-to-day life.


Different Types of Alcohol

Alcohols are hydroxy derivatives of hydrocarbons.

  1. Kinds of alcohol depending upon the number of the hydroxyl group.

  • Monohydric - Only one hydroxyl group is present in this type of alcohol. Example- ethyl alcohol and phenol.

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  • Dihydric - Two hydroxyl group is present in this type of alcohol. Example- glycol and 1,2-benzenediol.

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  • Trihydric - Three hydroxyl groups are present in this type of alcohol. Example- glycerol and pyrogallol.

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  1. Different kinds of alcohol depending upon the number of alkyl groups attached to the hydroxylated carbon.

  • Primary Alcohol - This type of alcohol has one or more alkyl groups on the carbon bonded to a hydroxyl group.

  • Secondary Alcohol - This type of alcohol has two alkyl groups on the carbon bonded to a hydroxyl group.

  • Tertiary Alcohol - This type of alcohol has three alkyl groups on the carbon bonded to a hydroxyl group.

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  1. Alcohol categories depending upon the hybridization of hydroxylated carbon.

  • Compounds containing sp3-OH bond

Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.

  1. Allylic Alcohols - In these alcohols, the hydroxyl group attached to the sp3 hybridised carbon next to aa carbon-carbon double bond.

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  1. Benzylic Alcohols - In these alcohols, the hydroxyl group is attached to  sp3 hybridised carbon atom next to n romantic ring.

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  • Compounds Continuing sp2-OH Bond

  1. Vinylic Alcohols - These alcohol contain a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom of a carbon-carbon double bond.

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  1. Phenols - These contain a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom of the benzene ring.

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Did You Know?

  • Ethanol and methanol are alcohols that act as fuel.

  • Alcohol can lower blood sugar level.

  • Alcohol can turn blue litmus to red.

  • Ethanol is used as an intoxicating agent.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question 1: Name the Types of Alcohol Depending Upon the Number of Alkyl Groups Attached to the Hydroxylated Carbon.

Answer: Three types of alcohols depending upon the number of alkyl groups attached to the hydroxylated carbon are: primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.

Question 2: What are Alcohols and Phenols?

Answer: Alcohols are the compounds that have one or more hydroxyl groups bonded to aliphatic carbon atoms. When the hydroxyl group is attached to the aromantic ring, it is called phenols.

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