Types of Solutions

Types of Solutions and Characteristics of Solution

Solutions are the part of our day to day life, as they are present in every common thing you generally use in your everyday life, like soda, deodorant that you put, sugar, salt, etc, are some general examples of Solutions. Basically, a solution is a type of mixture in which two or more substance mixes together to form a single solution, we can also say that it is simple and may or may not have changed their respective properties. Two components Solute and solvent combine to form any solution in a Homogeneous mixture. A solute is a substance that consists of lesser quantity in the solution which gets dissolves in the solvent, which is present in the higher quantity than solute. The state of the solvent usually determines the final state of the homogeneous solutions, though the state of solute does not make any difference in the solution as long as they are soluble in the solvent.

Matter can basically be classified as elements, compounds, Mixtures, but a solution comes only under Mixtures. On the bases of nature of components, mixtures can be classified into two types: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Mixtures. A homogeneous mixture can also be said as Solution. The mixture having components of any state shows the same properties throughout any given sample is known as Homogeneous mixture. Heterogeneous is simply any mixtures that are not based on a single composition. Examples of homogeneous solutions are a cup of coffee, perfume, salt or sugar in water, etc, and the examples of heterogeneous solutions are a solution of oil and water, a solution of sand and water, a solution of chalk powder and water, etc. The substances having the same homogeneous phase in all properties are called completely miscible in one another, but if the substances are insoluble in each other then they are called as immiscible. Example of miscible is ethanol & water and the Example of Immiscible is oil & water.

Characteristics of solutions can be stated as follows:-

i. A solution is the Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
ii. Once a solution is formed, the solute cannot be separated from the solution with the process of Filtration.
iii. A beam of light is not allowed to pass through the solution.
iv. A human eye cannot see the particles of the solute inside the solution.
v. A solution is stable and consists of only a single phase.

Formation of Solution: a physical process

The combination of Solute and solvent to form a solution is a physical process and not a chemical process. Solute and solvent both can be retrieved back through separation methods in a chemically unchanged form, which can be shown through the following example of solid Zinc nitrate dissolve in water to form the aqueous solution of Zinc nitrate.
    Zn(NO3)2(s) + H2O(l) ◊ Zn2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)

In the above reaction, Zn(NO3)2 can be recovered easily with the help of evaporation (evaporation of water) process. So, we can say that dissipation of solute in a solvent to form solution does not include chemical process.

There are different types of solutions which can be classified on a different basis like the difference in the solute and solvent, number of criteria, etc, which can be shown as follows:-

1. Different types of Solutions On the bases of water as Solvent:

Solutions can be classified into 2 types on the basis of whether the solution is water or not,

Aqueous Solution:- The solution in which any state of homogeneous compound completely dissolves in water, in which water acts as a solvent. Examples of this kind of solution are sugar/ salt in water, carbon dioxide in water.

Non- Aqueous Solution:- These solutions are basically opposite of the Aqueous solution, as the solvent available in it is not water, could be anything else like, petrol, benzene, ether, etc. Examples of this kind of solution include phenolphthalein in benzene, sulfur in carbon disulfide, etc.

2. Different types of Solutions On the bases of an amount of solute added:

Solutions can be classified into 3 types on the bases of an amount of solute present in the solution,

Saturated Solutions: A solution is said to be saturated only if it reaches its limit to dissolve any more solute in the solvent at a definite temperature.
Unsaturated Solutions: If the solution can still dissolve more solute in solvent then it is said to be unsaturated solutions.
Supersaturated Solutions: The solution in which solute is present in an excess amount, and are dissolved in the solvent forcefully by raising the temperature, is called as the Supersaturated Solutions. These excess solute particles are later found in the form of crystals with the help of the crystallization process.

3. Different types of solutions on the bases of an amount of solvent added:

Solutions can be classified into 2 types on the bases of an amount of solvent present in the solution,

Concentrated Solutions: Large amounts of solute is added in the given solvent to give concentrated solutions.
Dilute Solutions: A solution having a small amount of solute in a large amount of solvent is called Dilute Solutions.

4. Different types of solutions on the bases of the amount of concentration of solute in two solutions:

Solutions can be classified into three types based on the concentration of the solvent in two solvents (in a beaker and a cell in it), in the solution,

Hypertonic Solutions: Hypertonic Solutions are those types of solutions in which the concentration of the solute in a beaker is higher than that of in the cell, so water comes out of the cell making the cell to plasmolyze/ shrink.
Hypotonic Solutions: Hypotonic Solutions are those solutions in which the concentration of solute in a beaker is less as compared to the cell, so the water will move into the cell causing it to swell and burst afterward.
Isotonic Solutions: These Isotonic Solutions have the same concentration of solute in both beaker and cell, so the water will move around the cell in both directions.

Solutions can be distinguished on their ability to conduct electric current, as those solutions which contain molecules are called Non-conductors while those solutions which contain ions are known as conductors.

The substance which dissolves in water and breaks to form ions are called as electrolytes, while those substances which dissolve in water but does not form ions are called Non-electrolytes. These ion-forming substances which conduct electric current in solutions, known as electrolytes can be further classified into Strong electrolyte and Weak electrolyte.

Strong Electrolyte: Strong electrolytes are available only in the form of ions, as it makes the light bulb glow brilliantly on the conductivity apparatus (which is used to check electric current in the solution). NaCl is a good example of Strong electrolyte.
Weak Electrolyte: The solutions which contain only a few ions are known as weak electrolytes, which makes the light bulb glow dimly on the conductivity apparatus. Weak acids and bases are good examples of weak electrolytes.
Some examples of the solutions are listed below:-

S. no.SoluteSolventSolution is called asFormation
1.GasLiquidFoamWhipped cream
4.SolidSolidSolid SolCranberry Glass
5.SolidGasSolid AerosolSmoke