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What Are Organic Compounds?

Organic compounds are a substance that contains covalently- bonded carbon and hydrogen and often with other elements. Organic compounds examples are benzoic Acid, aromatic compounds, benzoic aldehyde, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, malonic acid, amines, heterocyclic compounds, VOC, benzoic acid, and diethyl malonate.

Aromatic Compounds

  1. Benzoic Acid

It is an aromatic carboxylic compound. Its molecular formula is C6H5COOH. It contains a carboxylic group attached to a benzene ring. 


Benzoic Acid Structure

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Properties of Benzoic Acid

Physical Properties of Benzoic Acid

  • Its molar mass is 122.12 g/mol

  • Its melting point is 122.3℃.

  • Its boiling point is 249.2℃.

  • Its density is 1.27 g/ cm3.

  • It is a colourless crystalline solid. 

  • It is soluble in non-polar solvents.

Chemical Properties of Benzoic Acid

  • Its heat capacity is 146.7 J/mol.K.

  • It is irritant in nature.

  • Its flash point is 121.5 degrees celsius.

  • It is acid in nature.


  1. Benzoic Aldehyde 

It is an aromatic carbaldehyde compound. Its molecular formula is C6H5CHO. It contains a carbaldehyde group attached to a benzene ring. Its IUPAC name is Benzaldehyde. 


Benzoic Aldehyde Structure

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Properties of Benzoic Aldehyde

Physical Properties of Benzoic Aldehyde

  • It is a colourless liquid.

  • It has an almond-like odour.

  • Its melting point is -26 degrees celsius.

  • Its boiling point is 179 degrees celsius.

  • It is slightly soluble in polar solvents like water.

Chemical Properties of Benzoic Aldehyde

  • It is irritant in nature.

  • Its flash point is 145 ℉.

  • Its heat of combustion is 3525 KJ/mol.

  • Its heat of vaporization is 42.5 KJ/mol.

  • It is acidic in nature.


Aliphatic Compounds

  1. Propanoic Acid

Propanoic acid is a three-carbon saturated molecule. It contains one carboxylic group attached to the carbon. It acts as an antifungal drug. It is the conjugate acid of propionate.


Structure of Propanoic Acid

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Properties of Propanoic Acid

Physical Properties of Propanoic Acid

  • It is a colourless liquid.

  • It has a sharp rancid odour.

  • Its melting point is -20.7 degrees celsius.

  • Its boiling point is 141.1 degrees celsius.

  • It is soluble in polar solvents like water.

Chemical Properties of Propanoic Acid

  • It produces irritating vapours.

  • Its flash point is 130 ℉.

  • It is corrosive in nature.

  • Its heat of combustion is 1528.3 KJ/mol.

  • Its heat of vapourisation is 418.7 KJ/mol.

  • It is acidic in nature.


  1. Butanoic Acid

Butanoic acid is a Four-carbon saturated molecule. It contains one carboxylic group attached to the carbon. Its molecular formula is C4H8O2. It is the conjugate acid of butanoate. Its common name is butyric acid.


Structure of Butanoic Acid

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Properties of Butanoic Acid

Physical properties of Butanoic Acid:

  • It is a colourless liquid.

  • It has an unpleasant odour.

  • Its melting point is -5.7 degrees celsius.

  • Its boiling point is 326.3 ℉.

  • It is soluble in polar solvents like water.

Chemical Properties of Butanoic Acid

  • It produces irritating vapours.

  • Its flash point is 170℉.

  • It is corrosive in nature.

  • Its heat of combustion is 521.87 Kg cal/gm.

  • Its heat of vapourisation is 40.45 KJ/mol.

  • It is acidic in nature.


  1. Malonic Acid

Malonic acid is a three-carbon saturated molecule. It contains two carboxylic groups attached to the carbon. Its molecular formula is C3H4O4. It is the conjugate acid of malonate. Its IUPAC name is Propanedioic acid.


Structure of Malonic Acid

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Properties of Malonic Acid

Physical Properties of Malonic Acid

  • It occurs in a white crystal or crystalline powder form.

  • It is hygroscopic in nature.

  • It has an odour similar to acetic acid.

  • Its melting point is 276.1℉.

  • Its boiling point is 284 ℉.

  • It is soluble in polar solvents like water.


Chemical Properties of Malonic Acid

  • It produces irritating vapours.

  • Its flash point is 170 ℉.

  • It is corrosive in nature.

  • Its heat of combustion is 864 KJ/mol.

  • Its heat of vapourisation is 92 KJ/mol.

  • It is acidic in nature.


  1. Diethyl Malonate

Diethylmalonate is a saturated carbon chain molecule. It occurs naturally in many fruits. It is used as a flavouring agent. Hydrolysis of diethyl malonate produces ethanol and malonic acid.


Structure of Diethyl Malonate

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Properties of Diethyl Malonate

Physical Properties of Diethyl Malonate

  • It is a colourless liquid.

  • It is hygroscopic in nature.

  • It has a sweet ester like odour.

  • Its melting point is -50 degrees celsius.

  • Its boiling point is 200 degrees Celsius.

  • It is soluble in polar solvents like ethanol, acetone, and water.

Chemical Properties of Diethyl Malonate

  • It produces irritating vapours.

  • Its flash point is 200 ℉.

  • It is corrosive in nature.

  • Its vapour pressure is 0.27 mm Hg.

  • Its heat of vapourisation is 64.7 KJ/mol.

  • It is acidic in nature.


Other Organic Compounds Examples are:

  1. Heterocyclic Compounds

These are the cyclic compounds that contain two or more than two different types of elements in the ring. These compounds are also called heterocycles. These compounds are widely distributed in nature. Heterocyclic compounds play a vital role in the biochemistry of the cells. Some of the heterocyclic compounds are toxic in nature. The main type of heterocycles that occur in genes are purines and pyrimidines.

Some examples of heterocyclic compounds are oxirane, oxetane, thiole, azole, azolidine, pyran, pyridine, and dioxane.


Structure of Heterocyclic Compounds

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  1. VOC

VOC stands for the volatile organic compound. This is the class of organic compounds that contains the most harmful organic air pollutant. These are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. This compound produces both long and short term adverse health effects. 


Sources of VOC are

  • Pesticides

  • Paints

  • Wood preservatives

  • Sprays (air fresheners, perfumes, and other sprays)

  • Disinfectants

  • Automobiles

  • Printers


Harmful Effects of VOC

  • Eyes and nose irritation

  • Headache

  • Nausea

  • Allergic reactions

  • Dizziness

  • Cancer

  • Damage to the central nervous system


Did You Know? 

  • Most of the organic compounds are made up of chains of a carbon atom.

  • The organic compounds found in the living body are carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acids.

  • The process of forming organic compounds is called organic synthesis.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Give five sources of VOC

Five sources of VOC are [VOC meaning - Volatile organic compounds]:

  • Pesticides

  • Paints

  • Wood preservatives

  • Sprays (air fresheners, perfumes, and other sprays)

  • Disinfectants

  • Automobiles

2. What are the heterocyclic compounds? Give a few examples.

These are the cyclic compounds that contain two or more than two different types of elements in the ring. Examples- oxirane, oxetane, thiole, azole, azolidine, and pyran.

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