It is defined as a monosaccharide and is found in all primary carbohydrates such as table sugar starch. It is also called grape sugar or blood sugar. It is represented as a six-membered ring and forms a pyranose ring structure. It is aldohexose and is the primary and preferred energy source of the body. The starch compound contains glucose.
It is defined as a monosaccharide and is found in fruits and vegetables. The glycemic index is lower in fructose to that of glucose. Binding fructose to cellular protein is seven times faster compared to the glucose. Fructose is also referred to as D- fructose or fruit sugar and its functional group are called a ketone. It is primarily metabolized in the liver and is not found in starch.
Structure of Glucose
Glucose is defined as a group of carbohydrates, a simple sugar having a chemical formula C6H12O6. It is composed of six carbon atoms, including an aldehyde group. Thus, we can refer to this as an aldohexose. It exists in two forms, which are either in the open-chain (acyclic) form or ring (cyclic) form. The major source of energy needed for living organisms is given as glucose. Algae and plants prepare glucose during the photosynthesis process with the help of water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. It is naturally found in honey and fruits. The glycogenolysis process obtains glucose present in animals.
Steps to Draw an Open-Chain Structure of the Glucose Molecule
Follow the below steps to draw an acyclic form of glucose.
Step 1: First, draw six carbon atoms
Step 2: Now, draw extended arms for all the carbon atoms ignoring the first one.
Step 3: Now draw a hydrogen atom to carbon bond such that four will be on one side, one on the other side.
Step 4: Rest of the spaces should be filled with an OH group. (as importantly – transpose (OH) to —> (HO) for the left side to represent that oxygen is bonded to carbon)
Step 5: Complete both the ends with two single-bonded hydrogen bonds with one double-bonded carbon.
Baeyer showed the open-chain structure of the glucose compound. However, these structures have faced difficulties in explaining why glucose fails to react with Schiff base, sodium bisulphate or the mutarotation process. Haworth introduced the cyclic structure of glucose that confirms the existence of alpha and beta forms of mutarotation, glucose, and more.
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Steps to Draw the Ring Structure of a Glucose Molecule
Follow the below steps to draw a cyclic form of glucose.
Step 1: Firstly, construct a hexagon
Step 2: Then, draw carbon atoms at five consecutive edges.
Step 3: Thereafter, attach an oxygen atom at the left out edge.
Step 4: Now, attach the four carbon atoms with OH and H groups.
Step 5: Complete the entire structure by attaching the left out carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms, one carbon atom and OH group.
(Image to be added soon)