Difference Between Molecule and Compound

Types and Examples of Molecule and Compound

What is a Molecule?

A molecule is a unit or particle consists of two or more atoms that are chemically held together; the number of atomic nuclei making up a molecule is a determinate number.

For instance, HCl is molecules consist of one hydrogen atom bonded to one chlorine atom. It is made of two atoms and is known as a diatomic molecule.

A crystal or rock of NaCl is not a molecule: it is an ionic lattice consist of an uncertain number of atoms or unit.

Carbon dioxide CO2 is a molecule consists of two oxygen atoms bonded to a carbon atom. It contains three atoms, so it is called triatomic molecule.

Silicon dioxide - well-known as quartz - occurs as a large covalent network made up of an uncertain number of atoms.
One of the most copious triatomic molecules in the world is the H3+ trihydrogen cation. Although abundant in space, where it is become stable by the very low temperature and the low density of matter, on earth the trihydrogen cation is rare.

Very big molecules occur; they are identified as macromolecules. An instance of a particularly big macromolecule is DNA, which holds hundreds of billions of atoms.

Homonuclear vs Heteronuclear

Only method to classify molecules is whether they are homonuclear, they consist of only one element, like H2, O2, O3, P4, N2, and S8heteronuclear, consist of more than one element, like NO2, CH4, PCl5, CO, and C6H12O6.

Images of two molecules: On the left side is S8, which is homonuclear.  On the right side is PCl5, which is heteronuclear.

Solid, Liquid, or Gas: Polar vs Non-Polar Molecules

Whether a material made of molecules is any of the matter such as solid, liquid, or gas at standard room temperature is measured by the molecules' molar mass and the strength of electrostatic attraction among molecules.

Low molar mass molecules, such as CH4 and H2, be likely to form gases.

Strong electrostatic attraction among molecules can have a major effect.

For instance, water (H2O) molecules have the same molar mass to CH4 molecules. Water begins to boil at 100 °C and methane begin to boil boils at -161.5 °C.

The big difference in boiling points rises from the electronegativities of oxygen and hydrogen creating a dipole in the water molecule. The water molecule is polar in nature; its hydrogen atoms have a long-lasting partial positive charge; oxygen atom has a long-lasting partial negative charge.

The result of these eternal charges is strong, relatively permeate polar bonding between individual water molecules, leading to an unpredictably high boiling point for a material whose molar mass is low.

There is only bonding between them is van der Waals, methane molecules, forming much weaker links between molecules than polar bonding. A Van der Waals bond occurs when relative nucleus vs electron positions in different molecules briefly produce a fleeting electrostatic attraction among them.

Weak temporary van der Waals forces transport molecules of methane together.  Solid, relatively permanent polar bonding between somewhat negative oxygen and somewhat positive hydrogen carries water molecules together.

A compound is a chemical type that is developing when two or more atoms combine chemically, with help of covalent or ionic bonds.

Compounds may be classified according to the kind of chemical bonds holding the atoms together:

• Molecules are bonded together by covalent bonds.
• Ionic compounds are bonded together by ionic bonds.
• Intermetallic compounds are bonded together by metallic bonds.
• Complexes are frequently held together by coordinate covalent bonds.

Chemical Formula:

Compounds are characterized by their chemical formula. A chemical formula is an information or detail about the parts of atoms that create a specific chemical compound.

The chemical formula of water is H2O which displays two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen have combined to produce one molecule of H2O. The chemical formula for common salt or table salt is NaCl which shows one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine combine to produce one molecule of NaCl.

Types of Compounds

Compounds can be categorized into two types, molecular compounds, and Salts. In molecular compounds, atom combines each other via covalent bonds. In salts, it is bounded together with ionic bonds. These are the two kinds of bonds out of which each compound is made of.

Example of Compounds:

  • • Compounds comprise Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and water (H2O) etc. You can see water’s chemical formula, it states it has 2 atoms of Hydrogen join with 1 atom of oxygen and in hydrogen peroxide, it has 2 atoms of hydrogen and two those atoms of oxygen.

  • • Compounds contain table salt or common salt sodium chloride (NaCl, an ionic compound), sucrose (a molecular compound), nitrogen gas (N2, a covalent compound), a sample of copper (intermetallic compound), and water. (H2O, a covalent molecule). Samples of chemical species not taken into consideration compounds contain the hydrogen ion H+ and the noble gas elements (e.g., argon, neon, helium), which do not readily form produce bonds.

  • Examples of some commonly used compounds along molecular formula:

    Compound NameCompound Formula
    Acetic AcidC2H4O2
    Sulphuric AcidH2SO4
    Nitrous oxideN2O

    Compound versus Molecule

    Occasionally a compound is called a molecule. Generally, the two words s are synonymous. Some scientists make merit between the kinds of bonds in molecules (covalent) and compounds (ionic).

    Difference Between Molecule and Compound
    Sl. No.Differentiating PropertyMoleculeCompound
    1DefinitionA molecule is a group or cluster of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.A compound is a substance or material which is formed by two or more different types of elements which are combined chemically in a fixed proportion.
    2RelatednessAll molecules are not compounding.All compounds are molecules.
    3ExampleAn example of a molecule is an ozone molecule.An example of a compound is table salt or sea salt (sodium chloride).NaCl
    4StructureMolecules are just a group of atoms which are bonded by a strong force.All compounds are definite matter in their complete shape.
    5VisibilityMolecule cannot be seen or watched with the naked eye as they are at atomic level.A compound can be easily seen via naked eye.
    6StabilityA molecule can be very unstable.A compound is always stable as it has a physical form.

    These were the key difference between molecule and compound.