In organic chemistry, functional groups play a crucial role. Alcohols are referred to as the organic compound with -OH functional group. Compounds containing a -OH group bonded to a tetrahedral carbon atom are alcohols. For alcohol, the general formula is R-OH, where R consists of an alkyl group. In this article, we will study the identification test for alcohol.
To identify the present functional group (test for Alcoholic group) in a given organic compound.
Qualitative test for alcohol- there are various test to detect the alcoholic group present-
Sodium metal test
Ceric ammonium nitrate test
Acetyl chloride test
Carboxylic acids react with alcohols resulting in the formation of fruit-smelling ester. The reaction is called the esterification reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. This reaction is a concentrated sulphuric acid-catalyzed reaction.
R-OH + R-COOH → R-COOR + H2O
CH3OH + CH3-COOH → CH3-COOCH3 + H2O
Below, the chemical reaction is given.
2R-OH + 2Na → 2R-O-Na + H2↑
2CH3-OH + 2Na → 2CH3-O-Na + H2↑
Due to the formation of a complex compound and ammonium nitrate, alcohol or ceric ammonium nitrate reactions form a pink or red-coloured precipitate.
(NH4)2 [Ce(NO3)6] + 3ROH → [Ce(NO3)4(ROH)3] + 2NH4NO3
(NH4)2 [Ce(NO3)6] + 3CH3OH → [Ce(NO3)4(CH3OH)3] + 2NH4NO3
The formation of ester and hydrogen chloride results from alcohol reactions with acetyl chloride
R-OH + CH3-CO-Cl → CH3-COOR + HCl
HCl + NH4OH → NH4Cl + H2O
This test is conducted with secondary alcohols, acetaldehyde, and ketones. The compound is heated in the presence of a sodium hydroxide solution and iodine. The presence of alcohol is shown by the formation of a yellow iodoform precipitate.
CH3-CH(OH)-CH3 + I2 + 2NaOH → CH3-CO-CH3 + 2NaI + 2H2O
CH3-CO-CH3 + 3I2 + 4NaOH → CHI3(Iodoform) + CH3COONa + 3NaI + 3H2O
This test is used to distinguish between primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. Lucas reagent is a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride. Tertiary alcohols on treatment with Luca’s reagent result in the formation of white ppt immediately. Secondary alcohol on treatment with Lucas reagent forms white ppt after 5 minutes. Primary alcohol on treatment with Luca’s reagent does not form white ppt at room temperature.
Ceric ammonium nitrate
Lucas reagent (zinc chloride and Con.HCl)
Test tube holder
The given organic compound is ___________. (primary alcohol, secondary alcohol or tertiary alcohol)
Sodium metal should be carefully treated, as it responds violently to water.
As it can cause nasal irritation, iodine should not be inhaled.
The boiling points of alcohols of equal molecular weights are much higher than those of alkanes. Ethanol, for example, has a boiling point of 78 °C (173 °F) with a molecular weight (MW) of 46, while propane (MW 44) has a boiling point of −42 °C (−44 °F). Such a large difference in boiling points means that ethanol molecules are much more highly attracted to each other than propane molecules are. The ability of ethanol and other alcohols to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds results in much of this disparity. (For a discussion of hydrogen bonding, see chemical bonding: Intermolecular forces.)
Question 1: Which Alcohol is Used in Sanitisers?
Answer: This allows the protective coatings of microbes to be lost and become non-functional. Formulations containing 80% ethanol (percent volume/volume) or 75% isopropyl alcohol are recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, but sanitisers containing 60 to 95% alcohol are generally appropriate.
Question 2: Which is Better Ethanol or Isopropyl Alcohol?
Answer: Findings from studies have shown that the disinfection of isopropyl alcohol was more effective than that of ethanol. Since ethanol requires more time and complex procedures to act, it should be easier to use disinfectants that act faster and simpler, such as isopropyl alcohol.
Question 3: Are Alcohols Acidic or Basic?
Answer: By the Arrhenius concept of acid and base, when dissolved in water, alcohol is neither acidic nor basic, as it neither produces H+ nor OH- in the solution. Generally, they are weak acids. Brønsted acids with pKa values normally in the range of 15-20 are very weak alcohols.