Q1. What is Knoevenagel Condensation of Malonic Acid?
This condensation reaction is named after Emil Knoevenagel. It is a nucleophilic addition reaction. In this reaction malonic acid or its diesters react with an aldehyde or ketone’s carbonyl group. This reaction is then followed by a dehydration reaction.
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Malonic acid when subjected to this reaction gives the desired product through a second step where removal or loss of carbon dioxide occurs. This modification step is called Doebner modification. An example of this so-called Doebner reaction would be the reaction between malonic acid and acrolein. The reaction product of this reaction is trans-2,4-Pentadienoic acid. Instead of two, this product has only one carboxylic acid group, due to the loss of carbon dioxide in the second step.