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An equation that represents the dependence of the reaction rate on the concentration of reacting species is called the differential rate equation. The instantaneous rate of reaction can be expressed as the tangent slope at any instant of time in the graph of concentration-time type. Therefore, it is more difficult to define the rate of reaction from the concentration-time graph. Hence, we integrate the differential rate equation to get a relation between the rate constant and the concentration at various points. This resultant equation is called the integrated rate equation. For different order reactions, we can notice different integrated rate equations.

In a zero-order reaction, the rate of reaction completely depends upon the zeroth power of the concentration of reactants. The zero-order reactions are noticed very rarely. A few examples of zero-order reactions can be given as decomposition of gaseous ammonia on a hot platinum surface, thermal decomposition of HI on a gold surface, and more. A general equation for a zero-order reaction including the rate constant k is derived below.

A → B

Rate is given by = - \[\frac{d[A]}{d}\] = k[A]⁰

⇒ - \[\frac{d[A]}{d}\] = k

⇒ - d[A] = -k dt

Integrating on both sides, we get:

⇒ [A] = - kt + c - (1)

Where c is given as the constant of integration,

At time t=0, [A] = [A]₀

Substituting the limits in equation (1) we get the value of c as follows,

⇒ [A]₀ = c

Using the resultant value of c in the equation (1), we get as follows,

⇒ [A] = - kt + [A]₀

The above-derived equation is referred to as an integrated rate equation for the zero-order reactions. We can also observe the above equation as a straight line with the concentration of reactant on the y-axis and time on the x-axis. And, the slope of the straight line signifies the value of the rate constant, k.

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In the first-order reaction, the rate of reaction depends on the first power of the reactant’s concentration. Artificial and Natural radioactive decay of the unstable nuclei is a few examples of the first-order reaction. A general equation for a first-order reaction including the rate constant k is derived below:

A → B

Rate is given by = - \[\frac{d[A]}{dt}\] = k[A]

⇒ \[\frac{d[A]}{[A]}\] = - k dt

Integrating on both sides:

⇒ ln[A] = - kt + c ----(2)

Where c is given as the constant of integration,

At time t=0, [A] = [A]₀

Substituting the limits in equation (2) we get the value of c, as given below.

⇒ ln[A]₀ = c

By using the value of c in the above equation we get,

⇒ ln[A] = - kt + ln [A]₀

We can notice that the above-derived equation can be plotted as a straight line including the ln[A] on the y-axis and time (t) on the x-axis. The negative slope of this straight line provides us with the value of the rate constant, k.

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We can also define the value of the rate constant, k from the above-given equation as:

ln \[\frac{[A]}{[A]_{0}}\] = -kt

⇒ k = - \[\frac{ln\frac{[A]}{[A]_{0}}}{t}\]

So, the concentration at any time moment can be given as,

[A] = [A]0\[^{e^{-kt}}\]

Hence, we can now define the concentration and the rate of reaction at any moment by the help of the integrated rate equation for zero and the first-order reaction.

The mathematical relationship of the reaction rate including reactant concentrations is referred to as the rate law. This relationship can rely more heavily on the concentration of one specific reactant, whereas, the resulting rate law can include either none, some, or all of the reactant species that are involved in the reaction.

Consider the following hypothetical reaction:

a A + b B → c C

For this, the rate law can be expressed as:

Rate = k[A]y[B]z

Here, ‘k’ is The proportionality constant, which is known as the rate constant and also specific for the reaction, represented at a specific temperature. And, the rate constant changes with the temperature, whereas, its units depends on the sum of the concentration term exponents present in the rate law. The exponents of y and z must be experimentally determined and they do not correspond require mentally to the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

There are primarily 5 factors that affect the rate of reaction, which are listed as follows:

Temperature

Pressure

Presence of catalyst

Concentration of mixture

The surface area of mixture molecules

For a reaction to take place/occur, as per the Collision Theory, the collisions between the 2 molecules of the 2 various mixtures must possess a degree of energy, which is called the ACTIVATION ENERGY. Only when the energy reaches this threshold can new bonds be formed after their original bonds have been broken.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Give an Example of a Zero Order Reaction?

Ans. The zero-order reactions are very uncommon, whereas, they occur under some certain conditions. One of the examples of a zero-order reaction is the decomposition of ammonia, which is given as follows.

2NH₃ → N₂ + 3H₂

Rate = k[NH₃]0 = k.

Q2. Given an Example of First Order Reaction?

Ans. One of the examples of a first-order reaction is the ethene hydrogenation, which is chemically equated as follows.

C₂H₄ + H₂ → C₂H₆

Thus, the rate of reaction for the above equation can be given as k [C₂H₄]. We can find the rate constants, initial and final concentrations, and the time taken for the reaction to take place using these reactions.

Q3. How the Order of Reaction Could be Determined?

Ans. The order of reactions can be either zero or a whole number or a fraction. It also falls on the dependency of the reactant’s rate of reaction. Whereas, if the rate is independent of the reactants, then the order of reaction can be given as zero. Thus, the rate law of a zero-order reaction would be the rate α [R]0 where [R] is the concentration of the reactant.

Q4. Mention the Factors Affecting the Chemical Reaction Rate?

Ans. There are several factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. A few of these factors listed below. Let us look at them.

Nature of the solvent,

Intensity of the light,

Surface area,

Catalyst,

Temperature,

Pressure.