Industrial Waste Types

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What is Industrial Waste?

Currently, we have millions of mills, factories, mining plants, industries, and so on across the world. All these industries use raw materials to form finished goods for consumers. However, in the process of manufacturing, there exist some materials which are rendered useless.

These constitute an industrial waste. There are many industrial waste types. A few different industrial solid waste examples are given as paints, metals, sandpaper, ash, slag, radioactive wastes, and more. Here, we will discuss various types of industrial wastes, including their disposals.

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Types of Industrial Waste

Industrial waste is categorized into 2 forms as, biodegradable and non-biodegradable, which are explained briefly below:

  1. Biodegradable

These industrial wastes are the ones that can be decomposed into non-poisonous matter by some microorganisms' action. They are also comparable to house wastes. These are generated from industries like dairy, food processing, slaughterhouses, textile mills, and so on. A few examples are paper, leather, wool, animal bones, wheat, and more. They do not require special treatment, and they are not toxic in nature either. Their treatment processes include composting, combustion, bio-methanation, gasification, and more.

  1. Non-biodegradable

These industrial wastes are the ones that cannot be decomposed into non-poisonous substances. A few examples are given as fly ash, plastics, synthetic fibres, silver foil, gypsum, glass objects, radioactive wastes, and more. These are generated by steel and iron plants, chemicals & drugs, fertilizer, and dyes industries. It is also estimated that about 10 - 15 % of the total industrial wastes are hazardous and non-biodegradable. The rate of increase in this waste category is only increasing every year. These wastes are made less harmful and cannot be broken down easily.

Thus, they are also environmental pollutants and cause threats to living organisms. They enter the bodies of plants and animals, causing diseases and accumulate in the environment. However, with technological advancement, various reuse and disposal methods have been developed. Wastes from one particular industry are being treated well and utilized in another industry. For suppose, the cement industry uses the fly ash and slag generated as waste by the steel industries. Incineration and landfill are the other methods for the hazardous wastes which are being resorted to.

Environmental Impact

Typically, power plants and Factories are located near water bodies because of the need for greater quantities of water as an input to the manufacturing process or cooling equipment. Yet, many areas becoming industrialized do not have the technology or resources to dispose of the waste with fewer environmental effects. Commonly, both partially and untreated wastewater are fed back into a near lying body of water. Whereas, chemicals, sewage, metals released into the water bodies directly affect marine ecosystems, including the health who depend on the waters as drinking or food water sources. 

Also, the wastewater toxins can kill off marine life or cause differential degrees of illness to the ones who consume these marine animals, based on the contaminant. Chemicals and Metals released into the water bodies affect the marine ecosystems.

Air Pollution

Another prominent effect of industrial waste is given as air pollution resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. This affects many people's lives since this spreads illnesses, and this issue has been widespread over time. Many environmental issues comprise a devastating effect on third-world countries since they don't have sufficient resources to solve this specific issue. This also affects soil quality because farmers always have to try and deal with this massive issue.

In addition to this, nitrogen dioxide became a common air pollutant found in the air. These air pollutants hold a devastating effect on the human population due to the cause of their sicknesses. Also, ammonia causes several respiratory problems, contracted from the air. In addition, there is also a chance to effect with Bronchitis or Pneumonia, in which both being very dangerous.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has stated: air pollution is one of the worst risks concerning human health. This pollution has been around for a longer period and indoor air pollution has become a risk for humans. This air pollution type is caused by solid fuels burning mostly from heating or cooking.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution is one of the most devastating effects of industrial waste. For most of the industrial processes, a heavy amount of water can be used, which comes in contact with uncountable harmful chemicals. In general, these chemicals are radioactive materials or metals. These affect the environment very heavily because most of the waste ends up in rivers, lakes, or oceans. Resultantly, water becomes polluted, posing a health hazard to all. Farmers completely rely on this water. But if the water is more polluted, then the produced crops can become resultantly polluted.

These effects society's health too because if the industrial companies cannot clear their waste, this begins to affect the human and animals life. The health of sea creatures is affected because their lives turn endangered due to this polluted water. Water pollution can also have devastating effects on the human body. The primary ones are infections from parasites, chemicals, and bacteria. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is industrial waste? Give an example?

The industrial waste can be characterized or given as waste generated by industrial processes or fabrication. Refuse of cafeteria, gravel and dirt, mortar and masonry, rubbish, scrap metals, gasoline, pesticides, solvents, weed grass; wood, trees, scrap lumber, and similar ones the types of produced industrial wastes.

2. What are the five types of waste?

Waste is divided into 5 waste forms, which all are generally found in the home itself. These can include solid garbage, liquid waste, radioactive waste, industrial waste, and recyclable waste.

3. List the examples of domestic waste?

The domestic waste examples include hazardous waste, types of industrial solid waste (household refuse/waste), wastewater (like sewage containing human waste - urine and faeces, soil runoff), toxic waste, and more.

4. What industrial waste mean?

Industrial solid waste can be classified as waste from manufacturing or industrial operations or the waste generated from non-manufacturing activities that are handled as a separate waste stream by almost all corporations.

5. How is industrial waste treated?

The techniques such as automated oxidation refining, adsorption, distillation, vitrification, ozonation, incineration, disposal, or chemical immobilization of landfills. A few products like some detergents can be capable of biological deterioration. Different wastewater treatment methods should be used in such situations.