A hydrogen ion is the nucleus of a hydrogen atom that has been separated from its electron. A proton is a particle with a unit positive electric charge that makes up the hydrogen nucleus. As a result, the isolated hydrogen ion, denoted by the symbol H+, is commonly used to describe a proton. So the above-given definition helps to understand what is H+ ion and hydrogen ion formula.
The isolated hydrogen(H+ ion) can only exist in a nearly particle-free space (high vacuum) and in the gaseous state since the bare nucleus can easily combine with other particles (electrons, atoms, and molecules). The name hydrogen ion is commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion found in water solutions, where it occurs as the combined molecule H+.H2O.
Hydrogen Ion Formula in Aqueous Solution
The hydronium or oxonium ion is represented by the formula H+.H2O, which is also written as H3O+. The amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to determine a substance's acidity; the higher the hydrogen ion concentration, the more acidic the solution and the lower the pH.
Charge on Hydrogen Atom- A hydrogen atom consists of a +1 charge nucleus and a single electron. As a result, the only positively charged ion that may exist has a charge of +1. It's called H+.
Hydrogen Ion Concentration
Acidity or alkalinity is determined by the hydrogen ion concentration.
Let's take the case of water.H2O is the formula for water, as you already know. The majority of water molecules are in a highly stable shape known as H2O. A small percentage of such compounds, however, have broken down into hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-).
In fact, the pH of water is determined by the balance of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
The solution is acidic when the hydrogen ions outnumber the hydroxide ions. If the situation is reversed, the solution is alkaline. For any solution, the following relationship between the densities of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) is observed if the temperature does not change: [H+][OH-]=Kw=10-14(=fixed) at 25℃
(Kw is called the ion product of water)
In pure water or neutral solution-
If the value of either [H+] or [OH-] is known, the value of the other can be determined.
Thus pH is determined by hydrogen ion concentration