Darmstadtium

Facts about Darmstadtium

While studying the periodic table, you can find that among 118 elements that have been found yet, 92 are obtained naturally on this planet. The rest 26 are known as transuranic elements. Any element in this periodic table with an atomic number beyond 92 belongs to this group. Thus, darmstadtium is also a transuranic metal.

These substances are highly unstable and also radioactively decay into different elements. These are the most common characteristics of transuranic elements. Their half-lives can vary from millions of years to fractions of one second. 

In this content, you will learn about darmstadtium or Ds chemistry chapter – its properties, compounds, applications. 

Ds Element

Darmstadtium or Ds element is an artificially produced element with an atomic number of 110. Thus, it is also termed as element 110 in chemistry. Ds signifies its chemical symbol in the periodic table. This element is highly radioactive and not abundant in nature.

The longest stable isotope of darmstadtium is Ds – 281 with a half-life of near about 12.7 seconds. Ds was first ever produced by Sigurd Hofmann, Gottfried Münzenberg, and Peter Armbruster in 1994. This incident took place in Germany - at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) in Darmstadt. 

Ds was produced by bombarding nickel – 62 atoms with lead – 208 atoms inside a heavy ion accelerator. 

As it was found out near the city of Darmstadt, the element was named Darmstadtium. This substance has some distinguished physical and chemical properties.

Following are the darmstadtium physical properties in a nutshell-

Darmstadtium Physical Properties

Chemical Symbol of Darmstadtium

Ds

Darmstadtium Atomic Number

110

Colour

Unknown

State

Solid at 20oC temperature (standard temperature); It is classified as a transition metal.

Structure

The structure is predicted to be body-centred cubic.

Occurrence

Synthetic

Odour

Yet to know

Darmstadtium Atomic Mass

261.9 gram per mole

Number of Electrons

110

Number of Protons

110

Number of Neutrons

171 in the most abundant isotope.

Group

10

Period and Block

7 – d

Electron Configuration of Darmstadtium

[Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (predicted)

Melting Point of Darmstadtium

Unknown

Boiling Point of Darmstadtium

Unknown

Density of Darmstadtium

34.8 gram per cm3 (predicted)

Main Isotopes

Ds - 279, Ds - 281


Darmstadtium Chemical Properties

Oxidation Stated (Predicted)

0, +2, +4, +6, +8

Toxicity

Due to its extreme unstable conditions, any formed amount transfers to another element quickly. Thus, its effects on human health are yet to be discovered.

Ionisation Energy (Estimated)

960 Kilojoule per mole, 1890 Kilojoule per mole, 3030 Kilojoule per mole and more.


Preparation

As said earlier, this metal was first created in 1994 at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research. During that time, the reaction was conducted by bombarding accelerated nuclei of nickel – 62 towards lead-208 atoms in a heavy-ion accelerator. Through this reaction, the team identified one single atom of darmstadtium isotope – Ds – 269.

Pb-208 + Ni-62 🡪 Ds-269 + 10n

In this similar experiment series, a heavier nickel ion Ni – 64 was used, and after two runs, the team was able to identify nine atoms of Ds – 271.

Pb-208 + Ni-64 🡪 Ds-271 + 10n

Isotopes

Isotopes

Half-life

Ds – 267

10 microseconds

Ds – 269

230 microseconds

Ds – 270 

205 microseconds

Ds – 270m

10 milliseconds

Ds – 271

90 milliseconds

Ds – 271m

1.7 milliseconds

Ds – 273

240 microseconds

Ds – 277

3.5 milliseconds

Ds – 279

0.21 seconds

Ds – 280

6.7 milliseconds

Ds – 281

12.7 seconds

Ds – 281m

0.9 seconds


The atomic number pf darmstadtium is 110, which means it has 110 electrons. The electrons are configured in a particular arrangement on its shells. Here is the electron configuration of darmstadtium in a tabular format- 

Darmstadtium Electron Configuration

Configuration of Electrons

[Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (estimated)

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d9 7s1

Electrons Present Per Shell

2,8,18,32,32,16, 2


Till now, you have known some important facts about Ds. So, test your understanding.

Quiz

1. Which One is the Key Isotope of Darmstadtium?

  1. Ds – 270

  2. Ds – 277

  3. Ds – 280

  4. Ds – 281

2. What is the Longest Half-life of Ds Isotopes?

  1. 12.7 seconds

  2. 12.5 seconds

  3. 13.2 seconds

  4. 11.1 seconds

3. Which Darmstadtium Was First Discovered?

  1. Ds – 269

  2. Ds – 268

  3. Ds – 270

  4. Ds – 271

4. Where Was Directed the Inventory Research Program of Darmstadtium?

  1. Sigurd Hofmann

  2. Gottfried Münzenberg

  3. Peter Armbruster

  4. Albert Einstein

5. Which Year Was Ds Metal Discovered?

  1. 1995

  2. 1994

  3. 1993

  4. 1992

6. How Many Predicted Oxidation States Does Darmstadtium Have?

  1. 3

  2. 4

  3. 5

  4. 6

7. What Was the Inspiration of Darmstadtium Name?

  1. A German town

  2. A God from Greek mythology

  3. One German scientist

  4. A place in Switzerland

8. How Many Protons Does Ds Have?

  1. 110

  2. 267

  3. 171

  4. 281

9. Which One from the Following Options is the Darmstadtium Chemical Symbol?

  1. Da

  2. D

  3. Dm

  4. Ds

10. Which Group Does Ds Belong to in the Periodic Table?

  1. Alkali earth metal group

  2. Transuranic element series

  3. Actinide series

  4. Halogen

11. Which of the Below-listed Options Does Suggest Darmstadtium?

  1. Semi-metal

  2. Nonmetal

  3. Ceramic

  4. Metal

12. How Many Neutrons Does Ds Have?

  1. 279

  2. 281

  3. 171

  4. 110

13. What is the Period-block of Darmstadtium?

  1. 7 – d

  2. 7 – f

  3. 6 – d

  4. 6 – f

14. Which Ds Isotope has the Shortest Half-life?

  1. Ds – 267

  2. Ds – 269

  3. Ds – 270

  4. Ds – 273

15. What is the Shortest Half-life of Darmstadtium Isotopes?

  1. 10 microseconds

  2. 20 microseconds

  3. 50 microseconds

  4. 100 microseconds

Answer

  1. d. Ds – 281 is the key Ds isotope.

  2. a. 12.7 seconds is the longest half-life that Darmstadtium isotopes have.

  3. a. Ds – 269 isotope was first discovered.

  4. a.  Under the direction of Sigurd Hofmann, Ds invention program was held.

  5. b. In the year of 1994 darmstadtium was found out.

  6. c. It is estimated that Ds has 5 oxidation states.

  7.  a. A German town named Darmstadt was the inspiration of naming this metal Darmstadtium. This is because the invention occurred near that town.

  8. a. Ds has 110 numbers of protons.

  9. d. Darmstadtium chemical symbol is Ds.

  10. b. Ds belong to the transuranic element group.

  11. d. Darmstadtium is a metal – transition metal as per the present estimation.

  12. c. It has 171 numbers of neutrons.

  13. a. 7 – d is the period - block of Ds.

  14. b. Ds – 269 has the shortest half-life among all its isotopes.

  15. a. 10 microseconds span is the shortest half-life that darmstadtium isotopes have.

Darmstadtium Applications

As you have learnt that Ds element is highly unstable. It is a synthetic radioactive metal which means it is not available in nature. Because of its instability, it is difficult to accumulate information about this metal. However, scientists are performing several types of research in various places over the world regading darmstadtium uses.

Presently, darmstadtium is only utilised for scientific research purposes. Also, its biological applications and role are unknown. As it cannot last more than a few seconds, the toxicity level is also yet to be studied.

Effect to the Environment

Similar to the previous point, it transfers to another element within a few seconds as it has a short life span. Thus, it cannot cause any harm to the environment.

Facts about Darmstadtium

  • Darmstadtium is a synthetic or human-made element. Till date, only a few numbers of Ds atoms have been generated. The reaction of lead and nickel was conducted in a heavy-ion accelerator to produce it. 

  • Ds is a transactinide d-block element and belongs to the 7th period in group 10 of the periodic table.

  • This metal does not have any stable isotopes. The Ds isotope that has the longest stability of 12.7 seconds is Ds – 281. Hence, its characteristics and properties have been mainly estimated.

  • It is also predicted that Ds holds equal characteristics and properties to its homologues – nickel, platinum, and palladium.

  • This element is also estimated to be solid at a standard temperature of 20oC that is acknowledged as room temperature. Moreover, Ds is expected to be a heavy metal as its predicted density is 34.8 gram per cm3.

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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Main Usage of Darmstadtium?

And. As of now, the main application of Ds is in scientific researches.

2. What is the Physical State of Ds?

Ans. Majorly, there can be three states of matter – solid, liquid, and gas. Ds element is classified as metal.

3. What are the Reactivity Properties of Darmstadtium?

And. Till date, a few Ds atoms have been produced, and very little facts are known about this element. Thus, it is estimated that darmstadtium may behave like platinum.

4. What was the Initial Name of Ds Before it was Synthesised?

Ans. Before the element was synthesised, its temporary name was ununnilium (Uun).