Chemical Properties of Aluminium

A prominent "group 13" element, which is also a member of the Boron family whose electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 is known as Aluminium. The addition of the first three Ionization enthalpies of the Aluminium, AI3+ ions can form. It usually furnishes +3 oxidation states and also is a high electropositive element which is in the case of Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3). The other type of oxidation states is +2 and +1. A transparent Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) layer protects it which forms in the air. There are physical and chemical properties of Aluminium, and its uses can also be seen.

Three Properties Of Aluminium 

To explain what are the properties of Aluminium, the 3 properties of Aluminium can be described as follows:

  • The first of the three chemical properties of Aluminium is the Reaction of Aluminium with air. Aluminium metal generally does not react with air as the surface of it is covered with an oxide layer which protects the coating from the attack of air. If the oxide layer gets damaged, the exposure of the Aluminium metal can be seen which reacts with oxygen and helps in the formation of amphoteric oxide (Aluminium (III) Oxide), Al2O3.         

4Al (s) + 3O2 (l) → 2Al2O3 (s)

  • The second of the three chemical properties of Aluminium is the reaction of Aluminium with acids. Mineral acids react with Aluminium to make solutions which contain liquid AI (III) ion along with the release of hydrogen gas, H2. The reaction of Aluminium with HCl releases hydrogen gas.

2Al3+ (aq) +6HCl (aq) → 3H2 (g) + 6Cl (aq)

This is how the reaction of Aluminium with hydrochloric acid happens.

  • The third of the three chemical properties of Aluminium is the reaction of Aluminium with alkalis. This reaction leads to the liberation of hydrogen gas (H2). Oxygen and Aluminium electronegativity make it possible for the Aluminium to form covalent bonds along with oxygen if Aluminium reacts with warm, sodium hydroxide solution to create a colourless solution of sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate along with the release of hydrogen gas.

2Na+ (aq) + 2[Al (OH)4] + 3H2 (g) → 2Al (s) + 2NaOH (aq) + 6H2O

Other than the three properties of Aluminium which are chemical properties of Aluminium, there are few physical properties of Aluminium.

The 3 properties of Aluminium Which are Physical Properties, Can Be Explained:

  • Aluminium is a silver type of metal with a tint that is bluish. 

  • The melting point is 660°C (1,220°F), and the boiling point is 2,327-2,450°C (4,221-4,442°F).

  • The density of Aluminium is 2.708 grams per cubic centimetre which is both malleable as well as ductile.

Uses Of Aluminium 

Aluminium is utilized in a tremendous assortment of items including jars, foils, kitchen utensils, window outlines, lager barrels and plane parts. This is a result of its specific properties. It has a low thickness, is non-toxic, has high thermal conductivity, has incredible corrosion obstruction and can be easily cast, machined and shaped. 

It is regularly utilized as alloy since Aluminium itself isn't stable. Compounds with copper, manganese, magnesium and silicon are lightweight however stable. They are significant in the development of planes and different types of transport. 

The Biological Role Of Aluminium 

Other than the three properties of Aluminium which are chemical properties of Aluminium as well as physical properties of Aluminium, no such biological role can be seen. +3 soluble in the plant makes it toxic. Acidic soils are due to the reaction of Aluminium with HCl found mostly on the Earth with AI3+ release from their minerals which the crops absorb.

Solved Example

1. What happens when there is a reaction of Aluminium with HCl?

The reaction of Aluminium with hydrochloric acid produces liquid aluminium chloride, AlCl3, as well as hydrogen gas, H2.

The chemical equation which is balanced explains this single replacement reaction that is 

2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) → 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2(g)↑

Remember that this reaction of Aluminium with hydrochloric acid will not happen when we add the piece of Aluminium to the hydrochloric acid solution. This is because the piece of Aluminium is covered by a layer of aluminium oxide, Al2O3, which protects Aluminium reacting with the water. The hydrochloric acid will need some time to work through this layer, but once it happens, the reaction will proceed faster, i.e. bubbling can be seen in the hydrochloric acid. 


Fun Fact

  1. In more than 270 minerals, Aluminium mostly can be found.

  2. It is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth after oxygen and also silicon.

  3. Aluminium as a global scale is one of the most used metals which do not contain iron.

  4. Aluminium reflects almost 98% of infrared rays and 92% visible light.

  5. Currently, Australia can be said as the largest producer of Aluminium.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Does the lowest carbon footprint is offered by Aluminium when considered the full life cycle?

Yes. While considering the full life cycle, and utilizing the right information, government and automobile industry contemplate affirming that—among contending materials—aluminium offers the littlest all out carbon footprint, for the tailpipe, but instead when all periods of a vehicle's life cycle are thought of. In a 2014 friend inspected LCA, the U.S. Division of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory thought about the full carbon life cycle emanation of both steel and aluminium, and finished up aluminium offers a littler all out carbon impression. In 2015, Ford and Magna contemplated a similar issue and arrived at the same resolution.

2. What steps has the aluminium business made to confine its ecological effect?

Current information expects to deliver essential aluminium down over a quarter since 1995, and the carbon impression is down about 40 per cent. This is proportional to 37 million barrels of oil spared, and 25 million tons of CO2e GHG decreased every year. These steps can be mostly to the business' developing utilization of sustainable hydroelectric force—from 63 per cent in 1995 to 75 per cent today. Reusing aluminium spares excess of 90 per cent of the ozone harming substance outflows related with essential aluminium creation and requires eight per cent of the vitality, and reusing rates for aluminium more than 90 per cent which is presently.