What are Amylose and Amylopectin?
Amylose is used in numerous industries as a biomaterial. It is a polysaccharide in nature. Amylose is a linear component and it is made up of between 100-10,000 glucose monomers and these are all linked by 1, alpha bindings. An amylose is a form of sugar, however, it has very different properties from native maize starch. The structure of this is a spread polymer that has around 6000 glucose deposits separated into branches of 1 in each 24 glucose rings.
What are the Chemical Properties of Amylose?
The IUPAC name of this compound is (1→4)-α-D-Glucopyranan.
Amylase has a density of 1.25 g/mL
It is insoluble in water
The boiling point of Amylose is 627.7 ± 55.0 °C at 760 mmHg.
It has a variable molecular mass
The chemical formula for this compound is (C6H10O5)n
It also has a surface tension of 74.4 ± 5.0 dyne/cm
It forms α glycosidic bonds
When exposed to hydrogen amylase molecules tend to form very tight bonds which make these molecules less prone to enzymatic degradation.
When it reacts with iodine, it forms a very distinct blue-colored compound.
What are the Physical Properties of Amylose?
Amylase has a characteristic unpleasant odor
It is formed in white crystals
The surface tension of Amylose is 74.4±5.0 dyne/cm.
Uses of Amylose (C6H10O5)n
Now let us take a look at what is amylose used for. Its uses are described as follows.
Amylose is used in the permanent textile finishes, film making, plastics, and bonding of paper pulp fiber.
Higher amylose starches are used together along with food gum or instant starch as a binder which helps in providing a crisp coating while making french fries which, in turn, also reduces the oil absorption.
It is also used as starches for food wrappers and sausage casings, incorporation into pasta and bread crusts for even heating in the microwave.
The Function of Amylose (C6H10O5)n
Let us now discuss what is the function of amylose.
Amylase plays a very deterministic role in the energy that is stored by plants. When it is converted to amylopectin, it is not digested very easily, since amylase has a helical shape that takes up less space as compared to the space taken up by amylopectin. Amylase accounts for at least 30 percent of the starch that is stored in all plants.
Amylase enzyme α-amylase breaks it down further into maltose and maltotriose, and these give energy to the plants.