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What is Acetamide?

Acetamide is an inorganic compound having the chemical name Acetamide. The chemical formula of Acetamide is C2H5NO. The compound acetamide is also known as Ethanamide, or Acetic acid amide, or also Acetic acid. It originated from acetic acid and it is the simplest amide - an acetamide widely used as a plasticizer.

Ethanamide is obtained as a hygroscopic solid, which is a colourless compound and has a mousy odour. This compound is readily soluble in chloroform, water, glycerol, hot benzene, and soluble in ether slightly. It is a member of the acetamides class, which results from the formal condensation of the acetic acid (CH3COOH) with ammonia (NH3). It is found naturally in red beetroot.


Acetamide Structure and Formula

The acetamide formula can be given chemically as CH3CONH2 or C2H5NO. Also, it has a molar mass of 59.07 g/mol. The acetamide has a methyl group (-CH3) that is bound to Amine (NH2) and carbonyl (CO). On the other side, the acetamide primarily comprises carboxylic acid amide functional group, having a general structure, as RC (=O) NH2.

Moreover, the acetamide belongs to the family of primary carboxylic acid amides. And also, it exists in nature and can be found as a natural compound. The acetamide structure or the chemical structure of the compound can be shown as follows:

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Occurrence of Acetamide

In general, the acetamide occurs in burning waste coal piles, formed between 50 and 150°C (122-302°F). Moreover, it only appears in dry weather periods. Also, scientists have detected its presence near the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

In addition, this finding is potentially significant for amino acids present in proteins. Also, this finding lends support to the theory, where the organic molecules lend to life can form in space.


Production of Acetamide

An extraordinary amount of acetamide can be produced through the ammonolysis of acetylacetone under conditions used commonly in reductive amination.

On the other side, anhydrous acetic acid is also used to produce acetamide, acetonitrile, and a very well hydrogen chloride gas in dried form, using an ice bath, together with more valuable reagent acetyl chloride. This product is typically low (up to 35%), and the acetamide is generated as a salt with HCl, produced in this way.

But, on the industrial scale, they use the same method used by scientists. They produce acetamide in industries by hydration of acetonitrile, a by-product of the production of acrylonitrile, or via dehydrating ammonium acetate.

CH3CN + H2O → CH3C(O)NH2


Properties of Acetamide

The acetamide compound is an acetic acid-derived chemical that has been identified as smelling like ammonia or vinegar. It will also cling to the places where musculus is under sleeping conditions and going to get food scrounge.


Let us Look at the Physical and Chemical Properties of Acetamide

Physical Properties of Acetamide

We can identify the compound in the field as transparent to translucent, gray variations, or colorless. It also has a white streak, having a density of 1.17 g/cm3. Its hardness is of 1 to 1.5, roughly close to a slightly harder substance or talc. The melting point of acetamide falls between 79 to 81°C, whereas the boiling point is 221.2°C. The IUPAC name of CH3CONH2 is given as Acetamide.

Moreover, it has a density of 1.159 g/cm3 and is soluble in water (2000 g L-1), pyridine (166.67 g L-1), ethanol (500 g L-1), chloroform, hot benzene, glycerol, and slightly soluble in ether.


Chemical Properties of Acetamide

We find the acetamide as a hygroscopic solid, which is colorless and has a mousy odor, depending on its purity. And it also has a bitter taste. Moreover, it is a member of the acetamides class, which results from the formal condensation of acetic acid (CH3COOH) with ammonia (NH3). Most noteworthy is, the carbonyl, anime, and methyl groups share electrons with each other to produce acetamide.


Uses of C2H5NO (Acetamide)

The acetamide is mainly used as a solvent for many organic and inorganic compounds and also in explosives.

Let us Look at the Other Uses of Acetamide, As Given Below:

  • Used in explosives

  • Used as a hygroscopic agent

  • Used as a plasticizer

  • Used in manufacturing of methylamine

  • Used as a penetrating agent

  • Used as a stabilizer

  • Used as a fire suppressant


Solubility of Acetamide in HCl

The key findings have been that acetamide and ammonia are water and HCl soluble because they are smaller molecules. The compounds aniline, triethylamine, and N, N-dimethylaniline are not referred to be water - and HCl soluble, but are MTBE-soluble (Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether). MTBE is not soluble in both acetamide and ammonia.


Health and Safety Hazard of Acetamide

Let us look at the acetamide hazards in brief. The acetamide compound has low toxicity, causes a reduction in weight, which only takes place when exposed to a high oral dose. In addition, it mildly irritates eyes, mucous membranes, and skin. Also, its combustion generates fumes or toxic gases. It can even cause damage to the corneal. Over time repeated oral exposure can cause lymphoma and liver tumors.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why is Acetamide a Weaker Base to That of Ethylamine?

The presence of an electrons lone pair on a base defines its intensity because these electrons are the ones that will “mop up” the H+ ions in a solution and thereby increases the pH toward more alkaline conditions. Also, phenylamine is a weaker base to that of ethylamine since there is less of a lone pair of electrons.

2. What is Acetamide Used For?

Acetamide is an organic compound, having the chemical formula as CH3CONH2. This compound is the simplest amide of acetic acid derivatives. Also, the acetamide is used in the manufacturing of polymeric products like polyvinyl acetamide, which is a polymeric commodity that is used as a co-monomer and an absorbent.

In addition to these, it can also be used for many industrial applications and purposes.

3. Why is the Acetamide Compound Soluble in the Water?

The primary amide is produced from NH2, which is an amino group replacing the carboxylic hydroxyl group. There is a point in a case, that is, acetamide (acetic acid + amide). The low molecular weight amides that are caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds are soluble in water.`

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