Subhash Chandra Bose Biography


Subhash Chandra Bose's birthday is on the 23rd of January 1897, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born in Cuttack. He was born to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Dutt. He was an Indian nationalist in the era of British colonialism in India whose defiant patriotism and immovable nerve and bravery made him a national hero whose praises are still sung with pride by every Indian citizen. His attempts to get rid of the British with the help of the Nazi party and Imperial Japan during the time of the second world war left him a troubled legacy. Although every Indian feels proud by hearing his name, it was not the case during the freedom struggle, especially in the INC where he often faced clashes of ideologies with Gandhiji and he did not get the recognition that he deserved. Let us take a look into the life of this extraordinary yet unsung hero. In honour of his contribution to the freedom struggle recently it was announced that his birthday is celebrated as “PARAKRAM DIWAS” as “parakram” translates to courage in English thereby recognizing his immense contribution by calling his birthday the day of courage. The day will now be commemorated each year in memory of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, the unsung hero of the Indian independence struggle!  Let us look at the Subhash Chandra Bose Biography and know our hero, in and out! 


Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth out of the fourteen children of Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Dutt. He attended the Protestant European School, which is now called Stewart High School, along with his other siblings in Cuttack. He was a brilliant student and had a knack for knowing which earned him a second position in the matriculation exam. He attended the Presidency College (now University) in Calcutta and was greatly influenced by the teachings and philosophies of Swami Vivekananda and Shri Ramakrishna Paramhansa Dev by reading their works when he was 16 years old.

He was later expelled by the college on grounds of assaulting a professor named Oaten even though he appealed that he was not even a participant in the act but only a mere spectator. This incident ignited a strong sense of rebellion in him and the mistreatment of Indians at the hands of the British which he observed to be happening widespread in Calcutta only added fuel to the fire. He joined the Scottish Church College under the University of Calcutta where he completed his graduation in Philosophy in the year 1918. He then left for London with his brother Satish to prepare for the Indian Civil Services exam that used to be held during that time. He took the exam and passed with flying colours on the very first attempt, such a bright student he was! But he still had mixed feelings as he would now have to work under the government set up by the British whom he had already started to despise. So, in the year 1921, he resigned from the Indian Civil Services as a symbol of boycotting the British after the incident of the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

Subhash Chandra Bose’s Family

His father was Janaki Nath Bose, his mother Prabhavati Devi and he had 6 sisters and 7 brothers. His family was a well to do family in financial terms which belonged to the Kayastha caste.

Subhash Chandra Bose’s Wife 

Subhash Chandra Bose married a woman named Emilie Schenkel. Not much is known about the wife of the revolutionary man. However, he does have a daughter who was named Anita bose! He always preferred to keep his private life very private and never talked much in a public forum. He wasn't much of a family man and dedicated all his time and attention to the country. His only aim was to see an independent India someday! He lived for the country and died for it as well!  

Role in Freedom Struggle

Subhas Chandra Bose joined the Indian National Congress (INC) under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and started the newspapers called “Swaraj” which means self-governance which marks his entry into politics and his role in the freedom struggle in India has just started. Chittaranjan Das was his mentor. In the year 1923, he became the President of the All India Youth Congress and became the editor of the newspaper “Forward” started by C.R. Das himself. He had also been elected as the mayor of Calcutta back then. He gained leadership spirit and made his way up to the top in the INC very soon. In 1928, the Motilal Nehru Committee demanded Dominion Status in India but Subhash Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru asserted that nothing would satisfy other than complete independence of India from the British. Gandhiji strongly opposed the ways of Bose, who wanted independence by hook or by crook, as he was a firm believer of non-violence itself.

He was sent to jail in 1930 during the Civil Disobedience movement but was related along with other prominent leaders in the year 1931 when the Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. In 1938, he was elected as President at the Haripura session of the INC and re-elected at the Tripuri Session in 1939 by competing against Dr P. Sitaramayya who was supported by Gandhi himself. He maintained strict standards during the commencement of the first World War and demanded full independence of India from the British within six months. He faced vehement objections from inside the Congress which led him to resign from INC and form a more progressive group called the “Forward Bloc”. 

He started a mass movement against using Indian men in the wars of foreign countries which received immense support and voice which led him to be put under house arrest in Calcutta but he left the house in disguise in January 1941 and reached Germany via Afghanistan and met the Nazi leader there to seek help from them to drive the British away from India. He also sought help from Japan. He made full use of the philosophy “an enemy's enemy is a friend”.


In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore and took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement started by Rash Behari Bose and organized the Azad Hind Fauj which is also known as the Indian National Army. It was at this time he was hailed as “Netaji” by which he is commonly referred to even today. The next few events have been blurry in the history of their struggle for independence by him. The INA liberated the Andaman and Nicobar islands but when it reached Burma, bad weather conditions, as well as the defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War, forced him to retreat. He is rumoured to have been killed in a plane crash in Taipei, Taiwan on August 18, 1945. Even though it is widely believed that he was still alive for many years after that. 

The life of Subhash Chandra Bose was full of surprises and dangerous adventures. Know more about interesting facts, life and how he led India to independence on Vedantu's website. You can also download the app and get free study materials on every subject which you can access anytime, anywhere! 

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Who is Subash Chandra Bose?

Popularly known as Netaji, Subash Chandra Bose was a freedom fighter whose ideology was not in line with the conventional freedom fighters. Although the conventional freedom fighters like Gandhiji and Nehru got their recognition Bose didn’t get the recognition he deserved. His impact in the freedom struggle has been impeccable and is noteworthy. However, because Gandhi was mostly never on the same page, his contribution is usually neglected. He formed the INA, the Indian Legion, and also almost acquired Hitler’s help for the Indian freedom struggle. He would be one of the martyrs India would never forget and hence his birthday 23rd of January is celebrated as “Parakram Diwas”.

2. How did Subhash Chandra Bose die?

The death of Subhash Chandra Bose is one of the most controversial topics today. Scholars believe that he died due to burns after meeting a tragic accident. Bose's plane which was of Japanese origin is believed to have crashed due to the propeller getting detached midway during the flight. The accident was a tragic one and after the accident, bose suffered third-degree burns. Medical help did arrive however, it wasn't of much help as Dr. Taneyoshi Yoshimi said that there were minimal chances of survival. Even after lots of treatment, the condition dint seem to improve. Unfortunately, Bose passed away on the 18 th August 1945 at the age of 48. His body was cremated 2 days later. The news left millions of Indians disheartened, agonized, and in a state of shock and trauma. All of the troops of the INA were disheartened and were in a state of disbelief.

3. What is the famous slogan given by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose?

Subhash Chandra Bose gave the famous slogan “It is blood alone that can pay the price of freedom. Give me blood and I will give you freedom” against the British.

4. Who or what influenced Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose to join politics?

Netaji was first influenced by the Swami Vivekananda when he was studying at Presidency College in Calcutta. He was also influenced by the works and life of Paramhansa Sri Ramkrishna Dev. Later on, his political initiation occurred at the hands of Chittaranjan Das who was an advocate of aggressive nationalism in Bengal. But he went to London to study for the IAS exam and upon returning he was greatly influenced by Mahatma Gandhi after which he joined the Indian National Congress by resigning from the government service.

5. What was the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in INA?

Subhash Chandra Bose raised the Indian National Army, also known as the Azad Hind Fauj and started an armed coup by inspiring thousands of Indian youths to join the army in India's struggle for independence from the British.

6. When and where did Subhash Chandra Bose die?

The exact date of the demise of Subhash Chandra Bose is not known but it is rumoured that he died in a plane crash in Taipei, Taiwan while returning from Japan. Although, it is widely believed that it was just a farce and he lived long years in disguise to see India gain independence from the British.