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Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 15 [Free PDF Download]

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CBSE Class 9 Science Chapter 15 - Improvement in Food Resources Revision Notes - Free PDF Download

In Chapter 15 for Class  9 Science Improvement in Food Resources Notes, we learn that all living organisms need food. Food supplies proteins, carbohydrates and essential nutrients for good body development, growth and health. This chapter also includes the sources from where the raw materials are obtained. It is a very interesting topic and through this chapter, we get a lot of insights on the various resources for food and sustainable agriculture. You can download the PDF of Improvement of Food Resources Notes and can also register for online tuitions for Class 9 Science on Vedantu. With the help of the notes created by Vedantu, you will surely master the topic. Vedantu is a platform that provides free CBSE Solutions (NCERT) and other study materials for students. Maths Students who are looking for the better solutions, they can download Class 9 Maths NCERT Solutions to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

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Access Class 9 Science Chapter 15 - Improvement in Food Resources Notes

All living species require food to survive. Plants and animals provide us with food. Food demand has risen dramatically as the world's population has grown. It is critical that we expand food production without harming our ecosystem or disrupting the delicate balances that keep it in check. As a result, sustainable agricultural and animal husbandry practises are required.

1. Improvement in Crop Yields:

For their growth and completion of their life cycle, different crops require different climatic conditions, temperatures, and photoperiods. Some crops are planted during the rainy season, known as kharif crops, which last from June through October. Paddy, soya bean, maize, cotton, green gramme, and black gramme are among the Kharif crops. Rabi crops are planted from November through April during the winter season. Wheat, gramme, peas, and linseed are among the Rabi crops. Crop variety improvement, crop production improvement, and crop protection management are the three key groups of efforts for increasing crop yields.

2. Crop Variety Improvement:

Crop variety enhancement can be accomplished through the selecting process. Higher yield, increased quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, change in maturity duration, wider adaptability, desirable agronomic traits, and so on are some of the factors that lead to variety improvement. A cross between two different varieties, known as inter-varietal crossing, or between two different genera, known as inter-generic crossing, or between two different species, known as inter-specific crossing, results in hybridization. Crop output can also be boosted by inserting beneficial genes into the crop plant. As a result, genetically engineered crops are produced.

3. Crop Production Management:

It refers to the safeguarding of crops that are either growing or have been harvested. Crop output can be improved by nutrient management, irrigation, and cropping patterns.

Agricultural practises refer to a variety of actions carried out by farmers in order to produce crops. Agricultural methods include the following activities:

  • Preparing the soil

  • Sowing

  • Adding fertilisers and manure

  • Irrigation

  • Defending against weeds

  • Harvesting

  • Storage

The overall strength of the end result — the crops that are growing — will be determined by the quality of the soil, seeds, and planting procedures. Corn benefits from the use of strong hybrid seed that can withstand harsh circumstances and maximise yields. Although seed science has advanced significantly, there are still approaches and methods that can be used to improve farm efficiency.

These nutrients can be added to the soil in the form of manure and fertilisers.

4. Nutrient Management:

Air, water, and soil are all sources of nutrients for plants. Macronutrients and micronutrients are the two types of nutrients found in plants. Carbon and oxygen are both supplied by air. Hydrogen and oxygen are both found in water. Plants get the remaining 13 nutrients from the soil. Plants' physiological activities, such as reproduction, growth, and disease susceptibility, are affected by nutritional deficiencies. The soil can be improved by adding these nutrients in the form of manure and fertilisers to increase output.

5. Manure:

Manure is created naturally when animal excreta and plant waste decompose. It contains organic matter, which promotes water retention in sandy soils and avoids water logging in clayey soils. Compost is made by decomposing farm waste, vegetable waste, household garbage, and sewage waste in pits using the composting process. Vermicompost is made by utilising earthworms to speed up the decomposition of plant and animal waste through the vermi-composting process. Plowing nitrogen and phosphorus-rich plants into the soil before sowing seeds provides green manure to the plants.

6. Fertilizers:

Fertilizers provide nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to plants. They're utilised to promote healthy plant growth by ensuring good vegetative growth. Fertilizers play a role in high-cost farming's better yields. Organic farming is a farming technique that uses organic manures, recycled farm wastes, and bio agents with little or no usage of chemicals such as fertilisers, herbicides, insecticides, and other pesticides.

7. Irrigation:

During the growth season, ensuring that the crops receive water at the appropriate times can boost the predicted yields of any crop. Irrigation is carried out using both old and modern ways. Depending on the types of water resources available, irrigation systems are used to supply water to agricultural regions. Rivers, canals, ponds, lakes, tanks, dams, and groundwater are all examples of ground water sources.

8. Cropping Pattern:

Mixed cropping, intercropping, and crop rotation are examples of different cropping patterns. Growing two or more crops on the same piece of land is known as mixed cropping. Wheat and gramme, for example, or peanut and sunflower. Intercropping is the practise of growing two or more crops on the same field at the same time, with certain rows of one crop alternating with rows of the other, such as soya bean and maize. Crop rotation is the practise of cultivating two or three different crops on the same piece of land over the course of a year. Cereals and legumes, for example.

9. Crop Protection Management:

Weeds are undesired plants that compete for food, space, and light with crop plants, reducing crop development. Herbicides or mechanical weed removal can be used to get rid of weeds. e.g. Xanthium.

Pathogens such as bacteria, fungus, and viruses cause diseases in plants. Herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and other pesticides can be used to control pathogens.

Weed management can also be achieved by preventative measures such as good seed bed preparation, timely crop sowing, intercropping, and crop rotation.

10. Storage of Grains:

Abiotic factors such as insects, rodents, fungi, mites, and bacteria cause agricultural storage losses. Crops are also harmed by abiotic factors such as insufficient moisture and temperature in the storage area. These factors can be controlled through proper warehouse treatment and management.

Before grains are kept for future use, preventive and control procedures are taken. They include thorough cleaning of the product prior to storage, proper drying of the produce in the sun and subsequently in the shade, and pesticide fumigation.

11. Animal Husbandry:

Animal husbandry refers to the scientific management of livestock animals. It covers a wide range of topics, including feeding, breeding, and disease control. Cattle, goat, sheep, poultry, and fish farming are examples of animal-based farming.

12. Cattle Farming:

Cattle farming serves two purposes: milk production and draught labour for agricultural tasks including tiling, irrigation, and hauling. Draught animals are utilised for farm labour while milk animals provide milk. Bos Indicus, or cows, and Bosbubalis, or buffaloes, are the two most common Indian cattle species.

Cleaning, sheltering, and feeding are all part of cow management. Cleaning entails washing on a regular basis to remove dirt and loose hair. Shelter facilities include well-ventilated roof sheds that keep cattle dry, warm, and protected from the sun. Roughage feed, which is mostly fibre, and concentrate feed, which is low in fibre but high in proteins and other nutrients, are two types of animal feed.

A variety of diseases affect cattle. In addition to causing death, the illnesses limit milk output. External and internal parasites both cause disease in cattle. External parasites are parasites that dwell on the surface of the skin and cause skin disorders. Internal parasites wreak havoc on the stomach and intestines. Farm animals are vaccinated against a variety of viral and bacterial infections.

13. Poultry Farming:

Poultry farming is the activity of keeping chickens for the purpose of producing eggs and meat. Broilers are used to produce meat and layers are used to produce eggs. In order to generate new types with desirable features, cross-breeding is prevalent in poultry. For example, the Indian breed Aseel has been crossed with the foreign breed Leghorn.

Cross-breeding is a technique for producing offspring with desirable characteristics. Dwarf broilers that may be utilised as meat in a short amount of time, a higher number and higher quality of chicks, and resistance to high temperatures throughout the summer are all desired qualities.

Good management methods are essential for good poultry bird production. These include temperature and hygienic conditions in housing and chicken feed, as well as disease and pest prevention and management.

14. Fish Production:

Tinned real fish, as well as shellfish such as prawns and mollusks, are all produced. Fish can be obtained in two ways. The first is catch fishing, which is based on natural resources. Fish farming, often known as culture fishery, is another option.

15. Marine Fisheries:

Popular marine fish include mullets, pomfret, mackerel, tuna, sardines, pearl spots, shellfish like prawns, mussels, and oysters, and Bombay duck. A number of high-value marine fish are also cultivated in seawater. Sea weeds like guso, elkhorn sea moss, Gracilaria, Wakame, etc are all examples. Oysters are also cultivated for their pearls.

As marine fish stocks become lower, only culture fisheries, also known as mariculture, can meet the need for additional fish.

16. Inland Fisheries:

Fish culture is occasionally done in conjunction with a rice crop, allowing fish to grow in the paddy field's water. In a composite fish culture system, more extensive fish farming is possible. In this arrangement, a single fishpond contains a mix of five or six different fish species.

Catlas feed on the surface, Rohus feed in the middle of the pond, Mrigals and common carps feed on the bottom, and grass carps graze on the pond's weeds.

A hormone stimulation strategy is used to solve the problem of poor seed quality in fish farming. This has assured that pure fish seed is available in the amounts required.

17. Bee Keeping:

Beekeeping, also known as apiculture, is the activity of keeping honey bee colonies in hives. It doesn't require a lot of money. Apiaries, often known as bee farms, are used to produce honey for commercial purposes. Beehives produce wax, which is utilised in a variety of therapeutic formulations in addition to honey.

Commercial honey is produced by Apis cerana indica (Indian bee), Apis dorsata (Rock bee), Apis florea (little bee), and Apis mellifera (Italian bee).

The pasturage or flowers available to bees for nectar and pollen gathering define the worth or quality of honey, and the type of flowers available determines the honey's taste.

Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes


Food is an essential organic substance required for the growth and proper functioning of all living organisms. It provides nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals required for the body development, growth and maintenance of health. The main sources of food are both plants and animals. We obtain raw materials for food from agriculture and animal husbandry. India has a huge population and it is growing day by day. So, improvement in food resources is essential to obtain higher yield to fulfil the need of food for the continuously increasing population.

Need for Improvement in Food Resources in India

Due to the continuously growing population, the demand for food is also increasing every year. Extra farming land is not available in India. We must increase our food production by the practice of sustainable agriculture without degrading the natural resources and disturbing the balance of the environment. To feed the big population of India, it is important to increase the efficiency of both crops and livestock. There have been tremendous efforts and breakthroughs in agriculture by scientists resulting in an increase in food production in all fields in the form of several revolutions.

To meet these requirements of the increasing population, the green revolution has contributed to increasing food grain production. The white evolution has led to better availability of milk. The blue revolution has led to increased production of fishes. The yellow revolution has led to increased production of oil. All these revolutions made India self-reliant in food to a large extent.

Improvement in Crop Yield

Farming practices to increase crop production can be divided into three stages. They are:

  1. The choice of seeds for planting.

  2. Nurturing of the crop plants.

  3. Protection of the growing and harvested crops from loss.

Crop Variety Improvement

The main objective of this practice is to find a variety of crops, which can survive in different situations like high salt salinity, diverse climatic conditions and water availability and can ultimately give a high yield.

There are two ways to integrate required characteristics into crop varieties:

  1. Hybridization is a method of crossing between genetically dissimilar plants to produce a new type of crop. It includes either an inter-varietal cross, that is a cross between two different varieties; interspecific cross, that is cross between two species of the same genus or inter-genic cross i.e. cross between two different genera.

  2. Genetically modified crops involve the manipulation of crop plants for increasing their production, improving quality, sustainability, etc.

Factors of Crop Variety Improvement

Factors for which crop variety improvement is done include higher yield, improved quality, resistance against biotic and abiotic factors, change in maturity duration, wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics.

Crop Production Management: Crop production involves the control of various aspects of crop production for maximum yield. There is a correlation between higher yield and input application. It completely depends on the financial status of the farmers to take up different agricultural practices and technologies. It includes nutrient management, irrigation and cropping patterns.

Nutrient Management: This includes adopting various methods to increase the nutrient level in the soil. This is done by manures and fertilizers in the field. Nutrients are the inorganic elements obtained from air, water and soil. Nutrients supplied by the soil to the plants are mostly absorbed by the roots of plants. Some nutrients like carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are provided by air and water.

Essential plant nutrients are divided into two categories.

  1. Macronutrients: Macronutrients are essential nutrients required for growth functioning and survival of plants. They are called as such because they are required in large amounts by plants. They are six in numbers, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur.

  2. Micronutrients: Micronutrients are required by plants in smaller quantities. These include seven nutrients. These nutrients are iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine.

Manure: Manure is an organic substance obtained through the decomposition of plant wastes like straw and animal wastes such as cow dung.

  • Manure provides a lot of organic matter (humus) to the soil. Humus helps to restore the water retention capacity of sandy soils and drainage in clayey soils.

  • These are the sources of soil organisms like soil friendly bacteria.

  • It improves soil texture.

Fertilizers: Fertilizers are plant nutrients that are produced commercially. They supply Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium to the soil.

  • They help in higher production of high-cost farming.

  • They ensure good vegetative growth and give rise to healthy plants.

Irrigation: It is the process of supplying water to crop plants in fields by means of canals, reservoirs, wells and tube wells.

Cropping Patterns: This involves raising crops so as to obtain maximum benefit from the same piece of land, reducing the risk of crop failure, disease, etc. It can be done by mixed cropping, intercropping and crop rotation.

  1. Mixed Cropping: It is a practice of growing two or more crops on the same piece of land at the same time. Its main objective is to minimize the risk of total crop failure.

  2. Intercropping: It is a practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in definite patterns. Its main objective is to increase the productivity per unit area.

  3. Crop Rotation: It is a practice of growing different kinds of crops on one piece of land. It depends upon the duration of crops. Its main objective is to increase the yield from a single field.

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Crop Protection Management: It involves the protection of crops from weeds, insects, pests and disease-causing organisms. It includes methods to reduce such kinds of infestation. If not controlled on time, they can cause heavy damage to crops.

Grains are affected majorly by biotic and abiotic factors.

  1. Biotic Factors: These include attacks from insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria.

  2. Abiotic Factors: These include inappropriate moisture and temperature in the place of storage.

Thus, proper measures should be adopted for their storage. Ex. Fumigation, proper cleaning of the produce before storage, and proper drying of the produce in sunlight and then in shade.

Animal Husbandry: It is the scientific management of livestock. It is animal-based farming of cattle, goat, sheep, poultry and fish.

  • Animal husbandry is required to meet the increasing demands of animal-based goods like milk, eggs, leather, etc.

  • Reduction of input cost.

Cattle Farming: This is done for milk and drought labour by cattle. Main benefits of cattle farming are as follows:

  • We get milk and various milk-based products from cattle.

  • Cattle can be employed for labour work in agricultural fields for tilling, irrigation and carting.

Poultry Farming: It is the method of rearing fowls for the production of meat and egg. It aims to improve poultry breeds for higher production of eggs and broilers for meat.

  • A Broiler is a poultry bird specially kept for obtaining meat.

  • A Layer is a poultry bird that gives eggs.

  • Broilers require food rich in protein with sufficient fat and high amounts of Vitamin A and K.

  • Layers require feed with vitamins, minerals and micronutrients and enough space and proper lighting.

Poultry Diseases and their Prevention

Poultry fowl suffers from various diseases. These are caused by different agents found in nature and can affect the growth, quality and quantity of chicks. They also suffer from nutritional deficiencies. These diseases can be prevented by:

  • Providing nutritional diet to poultry birds.

  • Cleaning and sanitation of shelter.

  • Appropriate vaccination of poultry birds.

  • Spraying disinfectant at regular intervals in the shelter.

Fish Production: It refers to capturing and culturing of fishes as a supplement of animal protein for humans. It is a cheap source of animal protein for our food. They are obtained by capturing them from their natural resources or by culturing them by fish farming.

The methods for fish production are:

  1. Capture Fishing: It is the process of obtaining fish from natural resources like ponds, canals, rivers, etc. Fishes can be located easily and then caught using fishing nets.

  2. Mariculture: It is a practice of culturing of marine fish varieties in the coastal waters. Satellites and echo sounders are used for locating large fish schools and then caught using many kinds of fishing nets.

  3. Aquaculture: It is the production of fish from freshwater resources like canals and brackish water resources like estuaries and lagoons. Fishes can be easily located and caught using simple fishing nets.

Beekeeping: It is scientifically known as apiculture. It is the rearing, care and management of honeybees for obtaining honey, wax, etc. Apiaries or bee farms are established for producing commercial honey.

The main advantages of beekeeping are:

  • Along with the production of honey on a commercial scale, other products like wax, royal jelly and bee venom are also obtained from beekeeping.

  • Beekeeping requires low investments due to which farmers, along with agriculture also prefer beekeeping to generate additional income.

  • It helps in cross-pollination. Pollens are transferred from one flower to another by bees while collecting nectar.

Chapter wise Revision Notes for Class 9 Science - Other Chapters


Our CBSE Science Class 9 revision notes for Chapter 15 - Improvement in Food Resources are curated and prepared by Vedantu’s expert teachers, who have the knowledge and substantial experience in this field. These notes will help students gain further clarity and a better understanding of the concepts of the chapter before their Class 9 Science exam. 

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FAQs on Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 15 [Free PDF Download]

1. How do Plants get Nutrients?

Nutrients to the plants are mostly supplied by the soil which are then absorbed by roots of plants. Some nutrients like carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are provided by air and water too.

2. What are the Different Methods of Fish Production?

The methods for fish production are:

  • Capture Fishing: It is the process of obtaining fish from natural resources like ponds, canals, rivers, etc. Fishes can be located easily and then caught using fishing nets.

  • Mariculture: It is a practice of culturing of marine fish varieties in the coastal waters. Satellites and echo sounders are used for locating large fish schools and then caught using many kinds of fishing nets.

  • Aquaculture: It is the production of fish from freshwater resources like canals and brackish water resources like estuaries and lagoons. Fishes can be easily located and caught using simple fishing nets.

3. Give Some Advantages of Mixed Cropping.

The advantages of mixed cropping are:

  • Chances of pest infestation are greatly reduced.

  • By growing two or more crops at the same time, soil fertility is improved.

  • Reduction of crop production failure due to the uncertainty of monsoons.

4. What are Some Preventive Measures for the Diseases of Poultry Birds?

Some measures for prevention of disease in poultry birds are:

  • Providing nutritional diet to poultry birds.

  • Cleaning and sanitation of shelter.

  • Appropriate vaccination of poultry birds.

  • Spraying disinfectant at regular intervals in the shelter.

5. How can I use Class 9 Chapter 15 Science NCERT Notes?

Vedantu provides NCERT notes for class 9 chapter 15. The notes provided will help you master all the topics and concepts available in the chapter. The notes are written in a simple and easy to understand language making them easier to understand. These notes will also help you in your revision before you write your exam. Apart from this, it will also help you to score well in your exam. You will be able to download the PDF of Class 9 Chapter 15 Improvement of food resources notes, free of cost from the Vedantu website (

6. What do you understand about improvement in food resources Class 9 Chapter 15?

Class 9 Chapter 15 Improvement in food resources talks about how all living organisms need food to survive. This chapter has very interesting information on all the topics. The food that we consume gives us carbohydrates, proteins, and other essential nutrients. These essentials provide living organisms with good health, good growth, and good body development. Apart from this, the chapter talks about the various sources from where raw materials are obtained. This chapter also provides information about various resources for sustainable agriculture and food. 

7. What is the need for improvement in food resources in India?

As there is an increase in the population of the country, the demand for food gradually increases. Although the main source of income comes from agriculture, there is not sufficient land available in India for farming. Therefore, it is important to increase our food production through sustainable agriculture. This ensures that we don't degrade natural resources and that there is a balance in the environment. To do so, we must increase the efficiency of livestock and crops in India. 

8. How does change in maturity duration affect crop production?

Maturity refers to the complete development of tissues in fruits and vegetables. The change in maturity duration of crops has a major impact on crop production. When the maturity period of crops becomes shorter, then the total cost of crop production decreases. This makes the crop variety very economical. When the maturity period of crops becomes uniform, it ensures that the harvesting process becomes easy. Uniform maturity also helps to reduce all the losses that may occur during the harvesting of the crops. 

9. What are the important topics to learn in Class 9 Science Chapter 15?

Class 9 Science Chapter 15 talks about the improvement in food resources. The important topics and concepts in this chapter include improvement in food resources, animal husbandry, and improvement in crop yields. Apart from this, other important topics include crop production management, crop protection management, cattle farming, fish production, Poultry farming, and bee keeping. This chapter is very interesting and easy to understand.  To know more students can refer to the vedantu app.