CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes - Industries

Industries Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 5 - PDF Download

There are so many different types of materials that we use from time to time in our daily lives. All these materials have been provided to us through a huge process of manufacturing. The entire process starts at one point and ends with the finished products. The entire process of manufacturing is done so that the raw materials can be transformed into finished products for the people. These products are manufactured in different industries. So, it is important for students to learn more about how to classify industries on the basis of ownership and much more. This is exactly what we are going to do here. We are also going to learn how to classify industries on the basis of raw material.

Access CBSE Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 05 – Industries Notes part-1

Access CBSE Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 05 – Industries Notes

The industry is an economic activity responsible for delivering us valuable finished goods that we use in our daily lives. For example, even the smallest of things, a pencil or paper has to go through more than one type of industry to develop into a finished product. Read below to know more about the classification and significance of industries.


1. Importance of Manufacturing 

i. Industries add value to raw materials and turn them into usable finished products.

ii. Industries help to modernize the primary sector as it assists in creating jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors. 

iii. It reduces poverty and unemployment rates. 

iv. Manufacturing industries boost trade and commerce, which brings in foreign exchange.

v. It contributes to the progress of the country by improving the economy.


2. Location 

The location of an industry is affected by the availability of several things—

a. Capital: How much capital can be gained after investment and how much capital will be required to sustain the business in the location - all of these factors determine the location which will require the least capital, most favourable for industrial development. 

b. Raw material: If the location has raw materials easily available, it is ideal for the industries as raw materials form the backbone of any industry. 

c. Market: The location should have a booming market nearby so the industries can sell their products easily. These markets should have both national and international connections.

d. Government policies: The government-made rules and regulations regarding imports, exports, and other traffic also determine the location of an industry. 

e. Power: This refers to the availability of electricity in that location. Power is essential for industrial machinery to function and produce goods. Uninterrupted power increases the productivity of the factory. 

f. Labour: Cheap labour should be readily available to work in the industry. The workforce is necessary to operate its machines and also to oversee the administrative work. 


3. Classification of Industries 

i. There are several grounds on which industries are classified. 


ii. Based on raw materials, industries can be classified into the following types:

a. Agro-based industries: Here plant and animal-based products serve as raw materials to produce finished products. For instance, food processing, dairy products, vegetable oil, cotton textile industries, etc. 

b. Mineral-based industries: These primary industries involve the usage of ores of various minerals as their raw materials. Finished goods from these industries are used as raw materials for other industries. For instance, iron, an outcome of mineral-based industry, is used to make heavy machinery, tools, etc. 

c. Marine based industries: These industries use products obtained from the oceans and seas as raw materials. For instance, industries that process seafood or manufacture fish oil. 

d. Forest-based industries: These are industries employing forest produce as raw material. For instance, pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture industries. 


iii. Based on capital investment, industries are of the following types:

a. Small scale industries: These are industries using a lesser amount of capital and technology. For example, silk weaving and food processing industries. 

b. Large scale industries: These are industries involved in the production of large volumes of products as the investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior. For example, automobiles production and heavy machinery industries. 


iv. Based on ownership, industries are of the following types:

a. Public sector industries: These are industries that are owned as well as operated by the government. For example, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

b. Private sector industries: These are industries that have individuals or a group of individuals owning and operating them. For example, ITC Limited and Reliance Industries Limited. 

c. Joint sector industries: These are industries owned and operated both by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. For example, Maruti Udyog Limited. 

d. Cooperative sector industries: These are industries that are under the ownership and operation of producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. For example, AMUL, Sudha Dairy, etc. 


4. Agro-based Industries 

i. Textile industry: It is the only industry in India, which is both self-reliant and thorough in the value chain. It generates employment, industrial production, and foreign exchange. 

a. Cotton textiles: It links workers who work in weaving, designing, ginning, packaging, spinning, sewing, tailoring, and cotton ball plucking and agriculture. Until the industrial revolution took place, cotton cloth was made from looms or hand spinning wheels. The USA, China, India, and Japan are the most crucial cotton-producing countries. It was the year 1854 when in Mumbai the first successful mechanized cotton mill was established.

b. Jute textiles: The largest manufacturer of jute goods and raw jute is none other than our country India. Several mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river. Most importantly, jute was employed for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the third millennium BC. 


ii. Sugar industry: India is the world's second producer of sugar. The sugar industry includes certain stages like the production of sugars, their processing, and finally marketing. This industry is seasonal in nature.


5. Mineral-based industry 

i. Iron and steel industry: Heavy, medium, and light industries depend on the iron and steel industry for primary machinery. Bhilai ( Chhattisgarh), Jamshedpur ( Jharkhand), Burnpur (West Bengal) are some hotspots locations for the iron and steel industry. TISCO or Tata Steel Company Limited is an important example of such an industry. 

ii. Aluminum: Smelting Bauxite is the raw material employed in this industry. It is the second-most crucial metallurgical industry in India and has immensely gained popularity. 

iii. Chemical industry: It includes both small-scale and large-scale manufacturing industries in both organic and inorganic sectors. For example, Tata chemicals Limited, UPL Limited, Atul Limited, and so on. 

iv. Fertilizer industry: These industries focus on phosphate production, nitrogenous, ammonium phosphate, and other types of fertilizers.

v. Cement industry: The cement industry forms the backbone of the construction sector. It is required for the construction of bridges, factories, houses, and other buildings. The cement industry contributes to the urbanisation process. This industry consumes heavy raw materials, limestone, gypsum, and silica. 

vi. Automobile industry: It deals with the manufacturing of buses, cars, trucks, scooters, multi-utility, and three-wheelers. The transportation sector heavily depends upon this industry. The automobile industry is located in Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, and other cities. Information Technology and Electronic Industry This industry covers a broad range of products ranging from televisions, cellular telecom, radars, computers, etc. It also supports the needs of the telecommunication sector. It has several employment opportunities in India. Bangalore is India’s electronic capital.

vii. Information technology and electronic industry: This industry covers a broad range of products ranging from televisions, cellular telecom, radars, computers, etc. It also supports the needs of the telecommunication sector. It has several employment opportunities in India. Bangalore is India’s electronic capital.


6. Industrial pollution and environmental degradation 

Industries cause four types of pollution. Those are as follows:

i. Air pollution 

ii. Water pollution 

iii. Land pollution 

iv. Noise pollution 


7. Control of Environmental Degradation 

Following are the ways through which industrial pollution can be decreased—

i. Minimizing water usage by reusing and recycling.

ii. Practicing rainwater harvesting 

iii. Treating effluents and hot water before discharging them in ponds and rivers.

iv. Installation of smokestacks with fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, etc. 

v. Reduction of smoke with the use of gas and oil.

vi. Machinery can be substantially designed and updated to enhance energy efficiency and curtail noise.


Important Questions and Answers

1. What is manufacturing?

Ans: Manufacturing can be defined as follows—

I. Manufacturing refers to activities that involve the production of goods in huge quantities.

II. By processing, it changes raw materials into valuable finished products.

III. Manufacturing activities belong to the secondary sector because goods from

the primary sector are used to make goods that are of more value to the consumers.


2. How are agriculture and industry interdependent?

Ans: The interdependence between agriculture and industry can be explained as follows—

I. Agro-based industries have enhanced the agricultural production of India by equipping them with the latest agricultural requirements like insecticides, fertilizers, irrigation pumps, PVC pipes, etc.

II. Industries also rely on agriculture to obtain essential raw materials in which they add value and sell to consumers.


3. How does the textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy?

Ans: The textile industry’s occupancy of a unique position in the Indian economy can be elaborated as follows—

I. It contributes 14 % to industrial production. 

II. It employs the majority of people after the agricultural sector, 35 million to be specific.

III. It shares about 24.6% in foreign exchange earnings.

IV. It renders a 4% share in GDP.

V. This is the only industry in India, which is both self-reliant and thorough in the value chain.


4. State the factors responsible for the growth of the cotton textile industry in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Ans: The factors responsible for the growth of the cotton textile industry in Gujarat and Maharashtra are as follows—

I. The cheap and abundant availability of raw cotton.

II. Humid climatic conditions in these regions are ideal for weaving cotton cloth without the yarn breaking.

III. Extensive transportation system which facilitates access to the ports in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

IV. Vicinity to the marketplace as cotton is ideal for wearing in humid states.


5. What are the problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India?

Ans: The problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India are as follows—

I. The irregular power supply

II. Outdated and obsolete machines used specifically in the processing and weaving sectors.

III. Low labor output

IV. Increased import of cotton boosted ingenious production

V. Stiff competition from the synthetic fiber industry


6. State the factors responsible for the concentration of the jute industry in Hooghly bank.

Ans: The factors responsible for the concentration of the jute industry in the Hooghly bank—

I. Cost-effective water transport provided by the river.

II. Abundant water to irrigate and process raw jute.

III. Easily available cheap labor from Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.

IV. Kolkata serves as a port and has large urbanization which provides insurance, banking, and other facilities.

V. Well-connected transport system network.

VI. Vicinity of the jute-producing areas to the basin.


7. Why are sugar mills located close to the fields?

Ans: Sugar mills are located close to the fields because of the following reasons—

I. Sugar mills require sugarcane as raw material but sugarcane is bulky which makes its transportation for long distances quite difficult.

II. Also, sugarcane is perishable and its sucrose content dries up. So, it can't be transported for long distances.


8. List the uses of aluminum.

Ans: The uses of aluminum are as follows—

I. Manufacturing of air crafts.

II. Packing material and making utensils.

III. Making wires

IV. As an ideal substitute for copper, steel, lead, and other industries.


9. What is thermal pollution?

Ans: Thermal pollution can be defined as follows—

I. Thermal pollution refers to the pollution created by untreated wastes from nuclear plants, weapons, and nuclear production facilities when those are discharged into water bodies.

II. This is also the type of pollution that causes birth defects and cancer.


10. List any three steps taken by the NTPC to preserve the natural environment and its resources.

Ans: The three steps taken by the NTPC to preserve the natural environment and its resources are as follows—

I. Decreasing waste generation by increasing ash utilization.

II. Establishing green belts to nurture and maintain ecological balance.

III. Optimizing the usage of equipment and upgrading it by adopting modern techniques


Overview of Industries

There are so many different types of industries that surround us these days. People try to classify industries on the basis of raw material and so much more. Not to mention that these industries have certain standards and sizes as well. So, the entire classification is really important. But before that, learning about the process of manufacturing in these industries is important. There are several machines at work that help in the transformation of raw materials into goods and products. For example, the pulp from the tree is changed into paper and then is transformed into a notebook. There are two different stages at play here. Students can easily learn how to classify industries on the basis of ownership from this.

To define the term ‘industry’, we can say that it is basically the economic activities that take place when it comes to the extraction of materials and production of goods along with some other services as well. Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 also discusses the classification of industries. We are going to provide some examples to make you understand what the industries do. There is the iron and steel industry which tends to help in the production of goods. Also, there is the coal mining industry that helps in the extraction process of coal. The tourism and hospitality industry, on the other hand, is completely service-based.


Classification of Several Industries

We have found that industries can be classified on three different points. We are going to mention these points to you so that you can understand.

1. On the Basis of Size: The classification of industries on the basis of size would mean that the industries would measure the capital and also the number of employees with respect to the production. When it comes to the classification of industries on the basis of size in India, there are 2 types. These are the small-scale and large-scale industries.

  • Small-Scale: Small scale industries are the ones which tend to use less capital amount and do not take advantage of more technologically advanced options. Hence, the production of goods is also on a small scale. Such industries do not require many employees for the production of goods as well. The best examples of a small-scale industry include food processing and silk weaving.

  • Large-Scale: The large scale industries are the ones which tend to produce the goods on a larger scale and volume. Hence, the capital investments in these types of industries would definitely be a lot higher for sure. Not to mention that the technology which is used will be very superior when it comes to large-scale industries. Some of the examples of the large-scale industries would be the automobile industries and also heavy machinery.


2. On the Basis of Raw Materials: The classification of industries on the basis of raw material is one of the most important forms of classification. There are different types of industries that fall under this category such as mineral-based, agro-based and marine-based industries.

  • Mineral Based: These primarily produce minerals by using ores as their raw materials. The products manufactured from these industries feed the others.

  • Marine Based: These industries tend to use different products from oceans and seas as raw materials. Production of seafood along with fish oil can be one of the examples.

  • Agro-Based: These industries tend to have some role to play in food processing, cotton textile manufacturing, vegetable oil production and other products.

  • Forest-Based: These industries tend to use the different resources of the forest for raw materials such as paper, furniture, pharmaceuticals, etc.


3. On the Basis of Ownership: To classify industry on the basis of ownership would divide the industries into two groups namely Private Sector industries and the Public Sector industries.

  • Private Sector: These industries are the ones which are owned as well as operated by a single individual or more than one individual.

  • Public Sector: These industries have governments owning and operating them.

  • Cooperative Sector: These are the industries which have suppliers and producers for the raw materials that own the industry.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What Does the Term Industry Mean?

Ans. An industry can be defined as the economic activities that are concerned mostly with the production of different goods, the extraction of certain minerals and so more.

Q2. Which Factors Influence the Selection of an Industry Location?

Ans. Some of these factors which tend to influence the section of an industry location include the availability of land, water, raw materials, capital, power, market, transport and labour.

Q3. Why did the Cotton Textile Industry have a Rapid Growth in Mumbai?

Ans. The growth in the cotton textile industry in Mumbai can be traced to the presence of certain favourable conditions such as a moist and warm climate, accessibility of proper raw materials, suitable methods for importing machinery and much more.

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