CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes - Industries

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Industries Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 5 - PDF Download

There are so many different types of materials that we use from time to time in our daily lives. All these materials have been provided to us through a huge process of manufacturing. The entire process starts at one point and ends with the finished products. The entire process of manufacturing is done so that the raw materials can be transformed into finished products for the people. These products are manufactured in different industries. So, it is important for students to learn more about how to classify industries on the basis of ownership and much more. This is exactly what we are going to do here. We are also going to learn how to classify industries on the basis of raw material.

CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes - Industries part-1

Overview of Industries

There are so many different types of industries that surround us these days. People try to classify industries on the basis of raw material and so much more. Not to mention that these industries have certain standards and sizes as well. So, the entire classification is really important. But before that, learning about the process of manufacturing in these industries is important. There are several machines at work that help in the transformation of raw materials into goods and products. For example, the pulp from the tree is changed into paper and then is transformed into a notebook. There are two different stages at play here. Students can easily learn how to classify industries on the basis of ownership from this.


To define the term ‘industry’, we can say that it is basically the economic activities that take place when it comes to the extraction of materials and production of goods along with some other services as well. Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 also discusses the classification of industries. We are going to provide some examples to make you understand what the industries do. There is the iron and steel industry which tends to help in the production of goods. Also, there is the coal mining industry that helps in the extraction process of coal. The tourism and hospitality industry, on the other hand, is completely service-based.


Classification of Several Industries

We have found that industries can be classified on three different points. We are going to mention these points to you so that you can understand.

  1. On the Basis of Size: The classification of industries on the basis of size would mean that the industries would measure the capital and also the number of employees with respect to the production. When it comes to the classification of industries on the basis of size in India, there are 2 types. These are the small-scale and large-scale industries.

  • Small-Scale: Small scale industries are the ones which tend to use less capital amount and do not take advantage of more technologically advanced options. Hence, the production of goods is also on a small scale. Such industries do not require many employees for the production of goods as well. The best examples of a small-scale industry include food processing and silk weaving.

  • Large-Scale: The large scale industries are the ones which tend to produce the goods on a larger scale and volume. Hence, the capital investments in these types of industries would definitely be a lot higher for sure. Not to mention that the technology which is used will be very superior when it comes to large-scale industries. Some of the examples of the large-scale industries would be the automobile industries and also heavy machinery.

  1. On the Basis of Raw Materials: The classification of industries on the basis of raw material is one of the most important forms of classification. There are different types of industries that fall under this category such as mineral-based, agro-based and marine-based industries.

  • Mineral Based: These primarily produce minerals by using ores as their raw materials. The products manufactured from these industries feed the others.

  • Marine Based: These industries tend to use different products from oceans and seas as raw materials. Production of seafood along with fish oil can be one of the examples.

  • Agro-Based: These industries tend to have some role to play in food processing, cotton textile manufacturing, vegetable oil production and other products.

  • Forest-Based: These industries tend to use the different resources of the forest for raw materials such as paper, furniture, pharmaceuticals, etc.

  1. On the Basis of Ownership: To classify industry on the basis of ownership would divide the industries into two groups namely Private Sector industries and the Public Sector industries.

  • Private Sector: These industries are the ones which are owned as well as operated by a single individual or more than one individual.

  • Public Sector: These industries have governments owning and operating them.

  • Cooperative Sector: These are the industries which have suppliers and producers for the raw materials that own the industry.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What Does the Term Industry Mean?

Ans. An industry can be defined as the economic activities that are concerned mostly with the production of different goods, the extraction of certain minerals and so more.

Q2. Which Factors Influence the Selection of an Industry Location?

Ans. Some of these factors which tend to influence the section of an industry location include the availability of land, water, raw materials, capital, power, market, transport and labour.

Q3. Why did the Cotton Textile Industry have a Rapid Growth in Mumbai?

Ans. The growth in the cotton textile industry in Mumbai can be traced to the presence of certain favourable conditions such as a moist and warm climate, accessibility of proper raw materials, suitable methods for importing machinery and much more.

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