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Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and WildLife Resources Class 8 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 2 [Free PDF Download]

VSAT 2023

Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and WildLife Resources Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 2 - PDF Download

Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Notes talks about how different natural resources impact our human lives. We are surrounded by various natural resources including land, soil, water etc. All these resources differ in variety from region to region. These resources determine our lifestyles to a large extent. You may be living in a thickly populated area, but there are regions which are sparsely populated or uninhabited.

To learn more about topics such as land, soil, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife resources, students can study Chapter 2 of Geography. The Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 notes will provide deep insights on various natural resources including land, soil, natural vegetation, and wildlife resources. Students should also properly go through NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 notes for complete preparation for the exams.

Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources - Brief Summary 

It is a known fact that 90% of the world population inhabits only 30% of the available land area. The remaining 70% of the land is either uninhabited or sparsely populated. Land, soil, and water are the abiotic resources of the earth. They also comprise the most important resources. Biotic resources are composed of natural vegetation and wildlife resources. Both Biotic and abiotic resources are exhaustible in nature. Hence, humans should practise judicious use of these resources to enhance their longevity and sustainability. 


Land is considered the most important natural resource. It covers about 30% of the total area of the earth’s surface. The world population occupied land in an uneven manner. This pattern of inhabiting land is due to various factors, such as land and climate, water fertility of the soil, etc. Sparsely populated or uninhabited areas resist more population because of the rugged topsoil present there. This chapter also discusses in-depth the various uses of land, conservation of land resources, soil, soil formation, factors affecting soil formation, degradation and conservation of soil, water, the problem of water availability and conservation of water, natural vegetation and wildlife, its distribution and conservation.

Key Topics and Subtopics in Chapter 2 Class 8 Social Science Geography  Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources

The following are the major topics and subtopics of Chapter 2 that students will cover while studying the Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources.

  • Land

1. Land Use

2. Conservation of land resource

  • Soil

1. Factors of soil formation

2. Degradation of soil

3. Conservation of soil

  • Water

1. Water availability problems

2. Conservation of water resources

  • Natural Vegetation

1. Its distribution

2. Its conservation

  • Wildlife

1. Conservation of wildlife

Last updated date: 29th May 2023
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Access Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources


The land is one of our greatest natural resources. It covers only about thirty percent of the total surface of the earth and not all parts of that small percentage are habitable. Rugged topography, steep mountain slopes, lowlands sensitive to logging, desert areas, and densely wooded areas are usually sparsely populated or uninhabited.


Uses of Land

The land is used for a variety of purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, home building, roads, and industry creation. This is commonly termed Land use. Land use is related to physical factors such as topography, soil, climate, minerals, and water availability. Human factors such as population and technology are equally important determinants of the land-use model.


Types of Land

Land may also be classified according to its ownership: private land and communal land. Private land is owned by individuals, while community land is owned by the community for common purposes such as gathering forage, fruit, nuts, or medicinal herbs. This communal land is also called common resources.

Conservation of Land Resource

Population growth and their ever-increasing demand have led to large-scale destruction of forest cover and arable land and created a fear of the loss of this natural resource. Consequently, the current rate of land degradation has to be verified. Afforestation, land rehabilitation, the regulated use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers, and the control of overgrazing are some of the methods commonly used to conserve land resources.


The thin layer of granular substance covering the earth's surface is known as soil. It has close ties to the land. The landscape determines the type of soil. The soil consists of organic matter, minerals, and altered rocks found on the ground. It occurs by the process of alteration. The appropriate combination of minerals and organic matter makes the soil fertile.


Landslides are simply defined as the massive displacement of rock, debris, or ground along a slope. They often occur in the context of earthquakes, floods, and volcanoes. Prolonged rainfall can cause heavy landslides which can block the flow of the river for a period of time. The formation of stream blocks can cause damage to colonies downstream of its rupture. On hilly terrain, landslides have been a major and widespread natural catastrophe that often affects life and property and occupies a position of major concern.

Mitigation Mechanism of Landslide Control

The advancement of science has enabled us to understand the factors that cause landslides and how to manage them. Here are a few general landslide mitigation techniques:

  • Hazard mapping to identify areas prone to landslides. Consequently, such areas can be avoided to construct colonies.

  • Build a retaining wall to prevent the earth from slipping.

  • Increased vegetation cover to prevent landslides.

  • Surface drainage control is used to control the motion of landslides, as well as rainwater and spring flows.


Factors of Soil Formation

The most important factors in soil formation are the nature of the original rock and climatic factors. Other factors include topography, the role of organic matter, and the length of time of soil composition.

  • Climatic Factors: Temperature and rainfall influence the rate of impairment and the formation of humus.

  • Relief: Altitude and gradient determine ground accumulation. 

  • Parent Rock Nature: Determines colour, texture, mineral chemistry, strength, and permeability.

  • Time-taken for Soil Formation: Determines the width of the soil profile.

  • Flora, Fauna, and Micro-Organism: Affects the rate of humus development.


Degradation of Soil and Conservation Measures

Soil erosion and depletion are the most important threats to soils as a resource. Soil degradation can result from human and natural factors. The factors leading to land degradation include the following:

  • Deforestation

  • Overuse of chemical fertilisers or pesticides

  • Rain wash

  • Landslides and floods

  • Overgrazing

Methods to Conserve Soil

  • Mulching: The bare soil between plants is covered by a layer of organic material like straw. It helps to hold moisture from the ground.

  • Contour Barriers: Stones, grass, and soil are used to construct fences along the contours. Trenches are dug in front of the barriers for water collection.

  • Rock Dam: The rocks are stacked in order to slow down the water flow which prevents gullies and ground loss.

  • Terrace Farming: Wide flat treads or terraces are made on steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available for growing crops. These minimise surface runoff and soil erosion.

  • Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternating rows and are planted at different times to protect the soil against rain.

  • Contour Ploughing: Plow parallel to the contours of a hillside slope to form a natural barrier allowing water to descend the slope.

  • Shelter Belts: In coastal, dry areas, rows of trees are planted to control wind movement to protect the vegetation cover.


Water is a natural, renewable resource of life. Three times the world's surface is covered in water. It is therefore rightly referred to as the "planet of water". It is in the early oceans that life began about 3.5 billion years ago. The oceans still cover two-thirds of the Earth's land surface and are home to a rich variety of plants and animals. But ocean water is salty and unfit for human consumption. Freshwater is just about 2.7%. Nearly 70% of these glaciers occur in Antarctica, Greenland, and mountain regions. Because of where they are located, they are inaccessible. Only one percent of fresh water is available and suitable for human use. It exists as groundwater, surface water in rivers and lakes, and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Problems of Water Availability

In many places around the world, water is scarce. Most of Africa, West Asia, South Asia, parts of the western U.S.A., northwest Mexico, parts of South America, and Australia as a whole are facing freshwater shortages. Countries in the most drought-sensitive climate zones face significant water scarcity problems. For example, water scarcity can be a consequence of variations in seasonal or annual precipitation, or scarcity is caused by overfishing and contamination of water sources.

Conservation of Water Resources

In order to access clean and adequate water supplies, measures have been taken to preserve this resource:

  • This means that the precious water resource can be preserved by using these irrigation methods.

  • In dry areas where evaporation rates are high, drip-to-drip watering is very helpful.

  • The sprinklers efficiently irrigate the area by checking for water losses via infiltration and evaporation.

  • The channels used to irrigate the field should be correctly doubled to minimise water infiltration losses.


Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural vegetation and fauna exist only in the narrow contact zone between the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere known as the biosphere. Within the biosphere, living things are interdependent and interdependent for survival. This vital system is known under the name of the ecosystem. The fauna consists of animals, birds, insects, and aquatic organisms. They feed on insects and also break down. The vulture because of its capacity to feed on dead cattle is a scavenger and considered a vital environmental cleaner. So animals, large or small, are all part and parcel of maintaining balance within the ecosystem.

Distribution of Natural Vegetation

Vegetation growth is primarily influenced by temperature and moisture. The world's most important vegetation types are grouped into forests, grasslands, brush, and tundra. In areas of heavy rainfall - Large trees grow - forests are therefore associated with plentiful water supply areas. As moisture levels decrease, tree size and density decrease. In drylands - Spiny shrubs and brush grow in areas of low precipitation.

Conservation of Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

The woods are our treasure. Plants support animals and, together, protect the ecosystem. Climate change and human interference can result in lost natural habitats for plants and animals. Many species have become vulnerable or threatened with extinction, and some are in the process of becoming so. Deforestation, soil erosion, construction activities, wildfires, tsunamis, and landslides are part of the human and natural factors that accelerate the process of extinction of these resources. 

Many countries have passed laws against the trade as well as the killing of birds and animals. In India, killing lions, tigers, deers, great Indian bustards, and peacocks is illegal. There is a CITES international convention that lists several species of animals and birds that are banned from trade. The conservation of plants and animals is a citizen's ethical obligation.

Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Notes

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Notes

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Notes talks about the presence of different types of resources in our environment. The notes offer a detailed understanding of these resources and how they are useful for the human breed. Also, there is a major difference in the quality and quantity of these resources present in different corners of the world. Here are different resources, as mentioned in the chapter.


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The land is the solid part of the earth’s surface. It is a vital natural resource. Although not every part of the land is habitable, it covers around 30% of the surface of the Earth. Usually, the densely populated areas are plains and river valleys.

Conservation of Land Resources

To practice sustainability, conservation of land resources is very essential. Some of the practices which are commonly adopted for conservation are:

  • Afforestation

  • Land reclamation

  • Avoid the activities which lead to soil erosion like overgrazing and the use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers.


All the land area which covers the earth is topped by a thin layer of a grainy substance known as soil. Every land doesn’t have the same kind of soil. It depends on different landforms. Soil comprises organic minerals and weathered rocks and is found on earth through the process of weathering.


Landslide is a dangerous type of natural calamity that often takes place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods, or heavy rainfalls. There occurs a mass movement of rock, debris, or earth down a big slope.

There are Some Techniques for the Mitigation of Landslides, Some of Them are:

  • Mapping the areas which are prone to landslides. 

  • Avoid any construction or building settlements in such areas.

  • Increase dense vegetation cover to arrest landslides.

Soil Formation

There are various factors that play a vital role in soil formation. Some of them are as follows:

  • Nature of parent rock

  • Regional Climate

  • Topography

  • Role of organic matter

  • The overall time is taken for the composition of soil formation

Conservation of Soil

In the past few years, there has been observed massive deforestation for construction and development. The soil becomes exposed directly to the sudden changes in climate and degrades eventually. Depletion of soil is also known as Soil Erosion.



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Water is the most abundant natural resource on our planet as it comprises three-fourths of the earth’s surface. Most of this water is not useful due to its saline nature. For human consumption, only freshwater can be taken into use. Although freshwater accounts for 2.7% of the total water on the Earth, more than 70% of this freshwater is in the form of glaciers and ice sheets. Natural vegetation and wildlife Class 8 notes explain that this leaves only 1% usable.

Conservation of Water Resources

Following are some measures that can be taken to conserve water:

  • Afforestation will help in reducing surface runoff and subsequent water harvesting.

  • Drip irrigation and sprinklers should be used for irrigation.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural Vegetation and wildlife comprise the biosphere and subsequent biodiversity. In the biosphere, all living organisms are interdependent. This system is called the ecosystem. Natural vegetation and wildlife Class 8 explains that wildlife includes animals, birds, and insects. The birds feed on insects, thereby acting as decomposers. The vulture feeds on the dead and decayed animals and therefore acts as a scavenger helping to clean the environment.


Natural vegetation, on the other hand, depends on the temperature and moisture. Forests, grasslands, scrubs and tundras, and various forms of vegetation.

Benefits of Chapter 2 Class 8 Social Science Geography  Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources

The revision notes have been prepared as per the latest CBSE syllabus and term examinations. They provide a concise and crisp discussion of the entire chapter that will facilitate faster revision.


These notes come with important questions that have been prepared by our Geography subject experts who have framed every point and answer keeping in mind the needs of the students to score well in exams.


Students can simply go through the notes before an exam instead of revising the whole chapter. This will enable them to finish the syllabus in time without compromising their knowledge or ability to score well in the exam.


Vedantu’s revision notes for Class 8 Geography will come in handy when students sit to revise their chapters in a shorter period of time. The revision notes ensure faster and more effective revision. By going through the notes, students will be able to not only study the entire chapter but also practise questions that are likely to appear in the exam. Download the free PDF now!

FAQs on Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and WildLife Resources Class 8 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 2 [Free PDF Download]

1. What are different methods for soil conversation?

Some of the methods for soil conservation are:

  • Mulching: It refers to covering the bare ground which gets directly exposed to weather conditions with a layer of organic matter like straw. 

  • Contour Barrier: These are contour strips which are made to slow down water movement. 

  • Rock Dam: A pile of rocks is made to stand in the way of water to slow down its flow. 

  • Terrace Farming: Wide strips or terraces are made on steep slopes to grow crops and support vegetation. 

  • Intercropping: To prevent the soil from rain wash, different crops are grown in alternate rows at different times of the year.

  • Contour Ploughing: this farming practice involves planting and ploughing at the elevation contour lines of the slope.

  • Shelterbelts: It refers to planting belts or rows of plants or trees to prevent soil cover from high winds.

2. What are the different uses of land?

There are various purposes of which land is used, including agriculture, forestry, constructions etc. The land use pattern is highly dependent on two factors, which are:

  • Physical Factors: These factors encompass topography, climate, minerals and availability of water. These are the key determinant factors when it comes to land use.

  • Human Factors: Factors like populations density and technological development determine to a large extent the land use pattern.

Apart from this, land can be broadly classified into private land, community land and based on ownership.

3. What do you know about different types of natural resources such as land, soil, water,  natural vegetation and wildlife resources?

Land, soil Water, natural vegetation, and wildlife are all-natural resources. We need land for building houses and industries. We use soil for growing crops. Land could be used for growing crops and for constructing buildings. Natural vegetation includes shrubs, herbs, and trees. Wildlife includes all the animals found on the earth. Animals such as cows, goats, and sheep are useful for human beings because a man gets various products from these animals.

4. What is conservation of natural vegetation Class 8?

Conservation of natural vegetation includes protecting and preventing trees and plants for future use. Trees are very useful for living beings. Living beings cannot live without trees. Trees and plants give us oxygen. They not only give us oxygen but also give us other useful products such as timber for making furniture. We also get medicines, fruits, paper, and rubber from plants. Thus, the conservation of natural vegetation is important for the next generation.

5. What are the two types of land Class 8?

Land is an important resource that is used for agriculture and constructing buildings. About 30% of the Earth's surface is covered by land. But, the entire land available on the earth is not habitable. The land has different characteristics and climates. Some areas are sparsely populated due to rugged topography, steep slopes, and low-lying areas. Areas that are highly populated include plains, availability of water, and fertile soil for agriculture.

6. What is land and what is the concept of land use Class 8?

Land is a natural resource and it is used for different purposes. Fertile land is used for agriculture and growing crops. Infertile land is not suitable for agriculture and therefore areas having infertile land and scarcity of water are sparsely populated. Fertile land with easy availability of water and other natural resources is thickly populated. People inhabit the areas where plain land is available because it is easy to plan land for building houses and industries. A land with rugged topography is not suitable for living. 

7. What is land degradation and how does it occur?

Land degradation means the quality of land decreases due to different activities. Land degradation may occur due to several reasons. The main causes of land degradation include deforestation or excessive cutting of the trees, absence of rain also makes the land infertile for agriculture, harsh climatic conditions, the poor utility of land, overgrazing by animals, etc. In the past years, land degradation has occurred rapidly and this has affected the environment.