Enzyme immobilisation is: A) conversion of an active enzyme into an inactive form. B) providing the enzyme with a protective covering. C) changing a soluble enzyme into an insoluble state. D) changing pH so that enzyme is not able to carry out its function.
Hint: Immobilisation is described as the imprisonment of an enzyme or cell in a different matrix or support. The matrix or support on which the enzymes are immobilised allows the exchange of a medium that contains inhibitor, effector, or substrate molecules. The practice of immobilisation of cells is very old and the first immobilised enzyme was amino acylase of Aspergillus oryzae to produce L-amino acids in Japan. Complete Step-by-step answer: Enzyme immobilisation is the confinement of an enzyme to a phase (support/matrix) dissimilar from the one for substrates and products. Inert polymers and inorganic materials are commonly used as carrier matrices. The inert material can be calcium alginate or sodium. This can offer increased resistance to changes in conditions like temperature or pH. There are many benefits of immobilisation, one of which is that the enzymes can be reused - catalysing a similar reaction several times. Immobilisation allows one to re-use the enzyme for a longer period of time and allows easier separation of the catalyst from the product. Moreover, immobilisation improves many properties of enzymes like performance in pH tolerance, organic solvents, functional stability, and heat stability. Therefore the correct answer is Option B. Note: Enzyme immobilisation may be described as a method of confining the enzyme molecules to solid support over which a substrate is passed and transformed into products. Immobilised enzymes are used to make biofuels from carbohydrate sources. Additionally, these enzymes are used to detect various kinds of conditions such as several diseases, pregnancy, etc.