Plant cell has cell wall whereas cell wall is absent in an animal cell. The chloroplast is present only in plant cells. Plant cells contain large central vacuoles whereas animal cells contain numerous small vacuoles. Plants are autotrophic whereas animals are heterotrophic.Complete answer:
Plant cell is the structural and functional unit of plants. It is rectangular in shape and larger in size than an animal cell.
Components of Plant cell are-
1. Cell wall: It is the outermost layer made up of proteins, cellulose, and polysaccharides. The main function is to protect the cell and to provide structural support to the cell. It also guides the movement of molecules in and out of the cell.
2. Cell Membrane: It is a semi-permeable layer present inside the cell wall. It is composed of fats and proteins. The main function is to filter the movement of molecules across the cell.
3. Nucleus: The nucleus is bound by a nuclear membrane perforated by a nuclear pore. The inside nucleus is the nucleolus and nuclear membrane. The main function of the nucleus is the storage of DNA.
4. Cell organelles:
a.Mitochondria: It is a double membrane-bound organelle and is known as the powerhouse of the cell as it provides ATP.
b.Ribosomes Membrane-bound organelle and are protein factories of the cell.
c. Golgi apparatus: Packaging and transport of macromolecules to the other cells.
d. Lysosomes: Membrane-bound organelle and their main function is the removal of worn-out organelles and other waste from the body.
e. Vacuole: It is surrounded by tonoplast and the main function is Storage and maintenance of turgidity of the cell.
f. Plastids: They are membrane-bound and have their DNA. Types of plastids are Leucoplast for storing protein, lipids, and starch and chloroplast for photosynthesis as it contains chlorophyll.Note:
Plant cell is rectangular with large vacuole occupying 30% of the cell volume. It is bound by a cell wall and cell membrane which is inner to the cell wall It has a nucleus carrying the genetic material and cell organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, etc with varied functions.