In this chapter, you will get to know about power sharing and its different forms. When it comes to running a particular government, there are two different ways of doing that. One of the ways can be defined as tyranny, where there is a particular concentration of power and the entire power is in the hands of a king or a leader. Apart from that, there is one other way and it is known as democracy. We are going to talk about the second form of running a government. In the case of power sharing, the entire power is offered to different positions at different levels.
Defining Power Sharing and Knowing its Forms
You must be familiar by now that running a government these days is done by the latter choice and that is through power sharing. So, we are here to tell you a lot about power sharing and what the different forms of power sharing are. In this chapter, you will also get to learn why this process of power sharing is so important for people as well. Let’s get started.
An Introduction to Power Sharing
The process of distribution of the power of a country or a region amongst the different parts or organs of any particular government such as the judiciary, executive, and legislature can be defined as power sharing. With the help of this process, several countries have achieved stability in the best way on their order of maintaining a political calm. Apart from that, power sharing also involves sharing of power along with the different district levels such as local, state, and union.
What are the Forms of Power Sharing?
We are living in a modern world and hence democracy would be an imitation of that as well. So, in this modern world and its democracy, there could be many different forms of power sharing.
A Horizontal Distribution
When it comes to a horizontal distribution of the entire power, there is a division of the power amongst the different organs that are present in the government. A few examples of these organs can include executive, legislature, and judiciary as well. One of the countries that practice this type of power sharing in the Government in India.
A Vertical Distribution (Federal Government)
In this particular case, the power will be shared amongst the different levels of the governments. There is one country that practices this type of sharing of power and it is the United States of America. While different countries practice different ways to share power, all of these methods are pretty effective and important.
Sharing Power Amongst Social Groups
Here is another one of the forms of power sharing that you need to know about. In this case of sharing the power, it is shared amongst the different types of social groups that are present in any area or region or an entire country. There can be different social groups such as religious associations and linguistic groups as well. One of the main examples of this type of power sharing is the community government that people use in Belgium.
Some Other Types
There are also some other types of power sharing that people need to know about. There are some political parties that often tend to have some power. Also, with the inclusion of pressure groups as well as the movements, the distribution of power is pretty much equal. There are also some other groups that tend to have a similar influence on those who are currently in power.
Story of Power Sharing in Belgium and Sri Lanka
After learning what the forms of power sharing are, we are now moving on to the story of sharing power in a European country known as Belgium. The population of the country is about 1 crore in total. In this country, 59% of people reside in the Flemish regions and the other 40% are in the Wallonia region. The Flemish people speak Dutch and the Wallonia people speak French. 1% of the remaining population speaks German.
In the case of Brussels, the capital city, there are 80% of people speaking French while the remaining speak Dutch. So, the French-speaking community had more power in the country which led to tensions in the country from about the 1950s to the 1960s.
In Sri Lanka, the government that was elected democratically opted for the Majoritarian policy. Hence, there was Sinhala supremacy in the government. Some of the measures that were taken were:
Making Sinhala the Official Language
Following the preferential policies of the Sinhala government
However, this decision led to the frustration of the Sri Lanka Tamils and they conducted movements all over the country for the recognition of Tamil as a language.
Power Sharing in India
In the country of India, power sharing mostly occurs within the different levels of the Government. There is a distribution of the power that occurs amongst the legislature, executive, the judiciary levels of the country. So far, the country has been handling this form of power sharing pretty well and there haven’t been many problems.