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Types of DC Motor

Last updated date: 24th May 2024
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DC motors refer to devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. DC stands for ‘direct current’, and these equipment specifically use this form of energy and transform it into mechanical rotations. Such devices primarily leverage magnetic fields associated with electric current and ascribe rotation to a motor. These motors, in turn, ensure the rotation of an output device attached to them. 

However, there are several types of DC motor about which you should know. Such models use two categories of currents – through rotors and start windings. The latter of these two provide magnetic fields that help these motors function. 

How Does a DC Motor Function? 

As per DC motor definition, a source of direct current generates mechanical energy from electrical energy. These devices usually possess a magnetic device, which may be permanent or electromagnetic. Besides, they comprise a stator, armature, rotor, and a commutator containing brushes. 

When you supply electric current through the armature, or a coil, a magnetic field springs into action. This field, in turn, reacts with the installed magnet and produces a specific torque. Therefore, you can see a rotation in the motors. The commutator regulates the flow of current among the coils. 

On the other hand, it also acts as a link between stationary power sources and armature by implementing conductive rods. 

What are the Types of DC Motors? 

If you are wondering how many types of dc motor are there, you have come to the right place to acquire knowledge. 

Notbably, the kinds of DC motor include the following – 

  1. Permanent Magnet DC Motor – This category of DC motor uses permanent magnets in the form of poles. These magnets usually remain mounted inside the periphery of a cylindrical steel stator. This stator, in turn, helps receive the magnetic flux. 

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The torque for shaft rotation leverages the contact between rotor conductors which carry axial current and permanent magnets. In this device, the flux remains constant. However, armature voltage control, rheostat control, and chopper control techniques help in controlling both speed and torque. 

  1. Series Motor – Series motor is one of the different types of DC motors that use the self-excited technique. It is because field winding connects to the armature winding in series and internally. This type of DC motor comprises a stator, rotor, and commutator brush. 

In this case, the stator consists of field winding, and rotors carry armature conductors. However, field coils constitute fewer field winding since the armature current is the field current. 

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Furthermore, torque in series DC motors is directly proportional to the current. The torque produces the motor speed, which finds industrial application in cranes. 

  1. Shunt Motor – In this case, the field winding links with armature windings of the motor, placed in parallel. It forms another type of self-excited motor. Both of these components have a steady supply of the same voltages. However, armature windings ensure the excitement of this shunt field. As a result, these offer a greater regulation of speed and also have the option of reverse control. 

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  1. Compound DC Motor – This DC motor and type comprises both the functions of series and shunt motors. These distinct categories of field coils generate appropriate magnetic flux. Also, it connects to the armature coil and produces a torque that becomes adequate for rotation at a required speed.

This category of DC motor combines effective speed regulation properties of shunt motor and high starting torque characteristics of a series motor.

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  1. Short Shunt DC Motor – This motor leverages the parallel connection between shunt field winding and armature winding. The series field coil interacts with the supplied current. After that, it diverges into the armature. 

  2. Long Shunt DC Motor – Long shunt DC Motor links in parallel with the series field coil along with the armature. These, in turn, interact with each other in series. 

How to Classify DC Motors? 

The classification of DC motors include the following – 

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Now that you know DC motor types and working, keep an eye on the related topics to gather further knowledge on this subject. Also, you can download our Vedantu app for a personalized learning experience along with convenience of access.

FAQs on Types of DC Motor

1. What is a DC Motor? 

Ans. A DC motor is a device that uses direct current to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. 

2.  What are the Types of DC Motors? 

Ans. The most prominent types of DC motors are separately excited, self-excited, and permanent magnet DC motors. 

3. What are the Two Types of Shunt Motors? 

Ans. The two types of shunt motors are long and short shunt motors.