In automobiles, engines are the primary source of producing energy by producing combustion heat with which chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy. Combustion produces harmful gases, which contribute to environmental pollution. Thus, electric bikes were introduced, but they can not carry much load and are not suitable in the long run.
That's where electromagnetic engines step in, which provide more power and capacity but without the harmful air polluting gases. Solenoids are a long coil of wire wrapped in many turns generating a uniform magnetic field when current is passed through it, just like a bar magnet. One can find the applications of solenoids in many solenoid engines as these coils can be strengthened by adding an iron core.
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This article will explain to you how to make a solenoid and what is the use of solenoid engine by telling you the application of solenoids as a solenoid motor.
Properties of a Solenoid
Solenoids are used a lot in switches since they can convert electric current into mechanical action.
The density of coils, number of turns, and the current inside a solenoid determine its magnetic fields.
The uniform magnetic field in a solenoid is at the center of the long solenoid.
The fields outside of the center are weaker, and the magnetic field lines are further apart.
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Force on rod = change in the magnetic field energy/distance moved by the rod within the solenoid.
What is a Solenoid Engine
A solenoid engine works on the law of electromagnetic attraction. Coil magnetism attracts the plunger, and a spark distributor is used to cause the electromagnet to move as per the position of the piston without the use of sensors or microcontrollers. When an electric current is supplied to the conductor, a magnetic field is set up at its surface. This magnetic field acts as an electromagnet. The electromagnetic force produced is dependent on the current inside the coils and the number of turns in the coils.
How to Make a Solenoid Engine
You would need the following materials to make the solenoid
Plastic drinking straws
2m thin insulated wire (using size 32 magnet wire gives best results)
1.5 V battery either AAA or AA
A wire stripper or sandpaper
Making the Solenoid Engine
1st Step - Create a coil
Cut a straw of 10 cm in length.
Wrap sellotape from the bottom a little way up leaving about 15 cm long tail unwrapped.
On the taped part of the straw, wind 100 tight and neat coils of the wire, one layer at a time.
Ensure that you are always coiling in the same direction.
Leave the 15 cm tail uncoiled.
2nd Step - Connect the battery
Form a T shape with the battery and the taped end of the straw by taping the battery on the end part.
Use sandpaper or wire stripper to remove some insulation from the wire.
Now tape one of the wire’s ends to the taped battery and leave the other end loose.
You need to ensure everything is tidy at this step since the next step is a little tricky.
3rd Step - Adding the plunger and testing it
Hold the straw a little above the table in an upright position.
Slip the needle into the straw, point up. You could either place the needle on the table or place the head of the nail on the magnet and put it in the straw that way.
Now touch the exposed end of the battery with the loose wire, the nail plunger or the needle should shoot up inside the wire.
Application of Solenoid
The main use of solenoid is as a switch for power. They are used in inductors, valves, antennas, etc. Its application is in varied fields like medical, industrial use, locking systems, automotive, etc.
It is used to control a valve electrically.
They can be used in a specific kind of door locking system. These locking systems are very secure as they use electromagnets.
They are used in computer printers.
Solenoids are used in fuel injection gears in cars.
Advantages of Solenoid
A solenoid has many advantages that you can not find in an ordinary coil:
A solenoid engine can work efficiently with less torque.