Solar Calendar

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Solar Calendar Meaning

A solar calendar can be best understood by visiting Jantar Mantar (Delhi, Jaipur). 


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There was a time when the inclination of sun rays helped people determine the time. Moreover, it also helped people determine the occurrence of an eclipse or any other happenings.  

Usually, a solar calendar helps determine the occurrence on the basis of time the earth takes to revolve around the sun.

In short, we can say that the solar calendar is a method of measuring and recording the time periods on the basis of time earth takes to revolve around the star (Sun).

On this page, you will understand solar month, lunar calendar and solar calendar.


What is a Solar Calendar?

A solar calendar is a calendar, the dates of which point to the season. They are almost equal to the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. 

The Gregorian calendar is widely accepted as a standard calendar in the world.

The Georgian calendar is a well-known example of a solar calendar. 

Another important type of calendar is the lunar calendar.

In a lunar calendar, months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. 

However, the months of the Gregorian calendar never correspond to cycles of the Moon phase.

There are various types of calendars that help determine the solar month; these are as follows:


Examples of Solar Calendars


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1. Tropical Solar Calendars

If the position of the world in its orbit around the Sun is estimated with reference to the Equinox, the purpose at which the orbit crosses the equinoctial circle, then it's dates accurately indicate the seasons. 

It means they're synchronized with the declination of the Sun. Such a calendar is named a tropical solar calendar.


2. Sidereal Solar Calendars

When the position of the Earth is estimated with respect to the fixed stars, the dates indicate the zodiacal constellation near which the Sun can be found. 

Such type of calendar is the sidereal solar calendar.


3. Lunisolar Calendar

Lunisolar calendars are lunar calendars. As a rule, lunisolar calendars are the additional intercalation that keeps a rough synchronization with the solar year; also, with the seasons. 

Ordinarily, a lunisolar calendar has a whole number of lunar months. However, it can't indicate the position of Earth on its revolution around the Sun. The same is with a solar calendar.


Lunar to Georgian Calendar

Firstly, Egyptians developed the solar calendar to use the annual appearance of the Dog Star - Sirius.

Sirius coincided with the yearly flooding of the Nile River, as a focal point. 

However, the Egyptians didn’t consider the extra part of a day in their 365-day calendar. 

Later, Julius Caesar in favor of the Julian Calendar replaced the Roman republic calendar, based on the Lunar Calendar of the ancient Greeks.

Further, the Julian Calendar allowed for February is leap year; also, made the solar year too long by adding a quarter of a day annually. 

By then, in the 16th Century, the additional time accumulated to form an error of around 10 days which was improvised in the form of the current Gregorian Calendar.


Solar Years Month

With the help of the solar calendar, we can predict the time period in which the sun sets and rises throughout the day. Besides, this, throughout the year, we can also determine the occurrences of the lunar and solar eclipse.

Though the measuring of time started in India; so how the time determination occurred, let’s understand it:

Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur established five Jantar Mantar in the early 18th century, the cities are:

  • New Delhi

  • Jaipur

  • Ujjain

  • Mathura

  • Varanasi;

These five were completed between 1724 and 1735.

The Jantar Mantar monuments have Samrat Yantra, Jai Prakash, Ram Yantra, and Niyati Chakra. Each of these is employed for various astronomical calculations. 

The fundamental objective of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables. Also, to predict the days and movements of the sun, moon, and planets.

The List of Instruments Involved are:

  • Samrat Yantra

  • Jai Prakash Yantra

  • Disha Yantra

  • Rama Yantra

  • Chakra Yantra

  • Rashi Valaya Yantra

  • Dingash Yantra

  • Utaansh Yantra


Solar Years Month

Earth's revolution around the Sun defines the year in the Western World

Therefore, the earth's revolution is referred to as a ´Solar Year´. However, several varieties of Solar years exist:

1. Tropical Year

A Tropical Year is derived from the Greek word ‘tropia’, meaning the turning points.’ This year lasts 365.242199 days UT. 

The name topical years refer to the changes of seasons that remain fixed in this kind of year.


2. Sidereal Year

A Sidereal Year lasts 365.256366 days UT. This year is the interval between two successive passages of the Mean Sun at the same star.


Lunar Calendar and Solar Calendar

A solar lunar calendar carries a difference. Additionally, there is a feature that a lunar calendar upholds. 

So, let’s get started with the difference between the lunar calendar and solar calendar:


Lunar Calendar

Talking about a lunar calendar, we usually have 354 days; however, in a leap year, a lunar calendar has 384 days. 


Solar Calendar

A solar calendar has 365 days. In addition to it, there are 365 days, i.e.,  an additional day during a leap year.


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Additionally, a lunar calendar shifts quickly in contrast to a lunar calendar.


Do You Know?

An Islamic Calendar relies on the Lunar Calendar for ascertaining the dates of their festivals such as Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Therefore, the lunar to Georgian calendar advances through our Gregorian solar calendar by 11 days every year.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Describe LuniSolar Calendar in Brief.

Ans: A calendar may be a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and therefore the time of the tropical year. 


If the solar year is defined as a tropical year, then a calendar gives a sign of the season. 


However, if it's taken as a year, then the calendar predicts the constellation near which the complete moon may occur. 


Likewise all calendars we divide the year into months there's a further requirement that the year has an entire number of months. 


In this case, ordinary years contain twelve months but every second or third year is an embolismic year, which adds a thirteenth intercalary, embolismic, or leap month.

2. What is a Solar Cycle?

Ans: The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle may be a nearly periodic 11-year change within the Sun's activity.


A solar cycle is measurable in terms of variations within the number of recorded sunspots on the solar surface. 


Wherefore, sunspots have been observed since the first 17th century, and therefore, the sunspot statistic is the longest continuously recorded statistic of any natural phenomena.


The magnetic flux of the Sun flips during each solar cycle.


Further, the sunspot cycle is near its maximum at the flip occurrence. 


Additionally, the levels of radiation, ejection of solar material, the quantity and the size of sunspots, solar flares, and coronal loops all possess a synchronized fluctuation.


These fluctuations may vary from active to dormant to active again, with a time period of 11 years.

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