Since the advent of the photoelectric effect, a remarkable concept theorized by Sir Albert Einstein opened a new dimension where we started considering lights as an accumulation of energy packets. These energy packets are called photons. In this section, we will study photons and its exceptional features. We will discuss its features, how it is formed, emitted, and absorbed. Here, we will also discuss biophotonics and how it has been developed over the years. Let us know more about these subatomic particles with no mass and charge.
What is a Photon?
Photons are explained as energy packets emerging from any source. They are defined as packets of energy emitted from a source in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Sir Albert Einstein proposed and explained these particles in the year 1905. It was his theory of photoelectric effect that properly described the existence and emission of photons of light.
Before this theory, Max Planck described how heat energy is radiated and absorbed in the form of units. It was his theory that showed how packets of heat energy are absorbed. He explained these units as quanta. The term ‘photon’ came into light when it was explained and coined in the year 1926.
If you observe the nature of all the electromagnetic radiation, we will find that these energy packets exist in all of them. Despite the fact, why do these gamma rays, X-rays, infrared rays, etc vary in energy? All these rays do not have any electric charge but have a particular level of energy to disperse. It all depends on the frequency of the photons of light that decide the energy of the electromagnetic rays. As per the insights into quantum mechanics, these particles show duality behavior. They behave like a wave of energy but also as a particle in some aspects.
What is a Dark Photon?
The advancement in this section of physics also revealed the presence of a heavier particle, a carrier of forces hidden from our eyes. This particle is called dark photon and can be connected to the presence of dark matter. They exhibit properties similar to photons but remain hidden.
The gravitational effects that cannot be explained by visible matter can easily be demonstrated by the presence of dark photons. Its presence has been detected by the Large Hadron Collider.
What is Biophotonics?
If you observe this term, you will find that it is linked to the emission of photons in a living matter. Biophotonics is linked with the emission of photons, units of light, detected by a machine to understand the processes and other aspects of life. The energy packets emitted by a living source naturally or due to the presence of a fluorescent marker are called a biophoton. It can be used in different fields of scientific detection required in the biological aspects.
Scientists are working on this subject for decades to make the imaging techniques of different medical processes better. When a marker of a fluorescent substance is injected to mark a particular tissue or organ, the researchers get a canvas to check the emission level. This is where biophotonics is used to create a clearer image of an organ system, a particular tissue, etc where the fluorescent marker will be accepted. These optical techniques can be used in different biological fields and will make research better.
What is Photo Gas?
This is a segment of quantum physics where photons are collected in a particular space showing properties similar to general gases. This collection of photons in the form of gas is called photon gas. The thermodynamic properties of these gases can be measured using various formulas and equations.
Photon Double Slit Experiment
As we have understood that photons are energy packets that emerge from a source. They also behave like waves, as well as, particles showing duality in characteristics. Hence, photons will also display the nature of light and will pass the double-slit experiment. The photon double slit experiment shows that it has both wave-like and particle natures.
This experiment was conducted in the first decade of the 1800s and has still significantly proved the duality of photons in light rays. The proper explanation of this simple yet effective experiment can only be given when photon particles exhibit both natures.
What is the difference between Photon and Electron?
Electrons are the negatively-charged subatomic particles that remain outside the nucleus rotating in their respective suborbital. Every electron is defined by its energy level and bound with the nucleus via electrostatic force of attraction. They also have a negligible mass and can also be found in cathode rays. Electrons can also move in the form of waves.
Photons, on the other hand, are energy packets that show both wave-like and particle nature. They have no mass but have high energy. They move at the speed of light. Their energy level is determined by the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation waves.
This is the basic difference between a photon and electron. To understand these two particles, you need to observe their properties and differences aptly.