We all are familiar with the term wave. We have heard of water waves, sound waves and so on. So, what is a wave and what are its characteristics? What does a wave do? Are there different types of waves? What are the characteristic features, traits or defining aspects of what we call a wave? When you throw a stone in a lake of still water, we see ripples. Ripples are the wavy motion of the water which has a high point and a low point. These waves have distinct properties. These are similar to the more abstract waves like sound waves and light waves.
A sound wave like any other wave is caused by a vibrating object. A tuning fork or a human voice. Regardless of the source that causes the vibration, the particles in the medium vibrate back and forth in a particular frequency. The term frequency indicates how often the particles vibrate when the wave passes through the medium. Frequency is measured as the total number of complete vibrations in unit time. For example, if a longitudinal wave undergoes 10000 vibrations in 5 seconds then its frequency is 2000 vibrations per second. The commonly used unit for frequency is Hertz.
Now, what is Wavelength? Wavelength is defined as the distance between two consecutive crests or troughs in a wave. In a low-frequency wave, the distance between consecutive crests or trough is more than in a high-frequency wave. See the above figure for understanding. So, does this show a correlation between frequency and wavelength? A high-frequency wave has a lower wavelength. So, they are inversely related. Wavelength is measured in nanometres. Wavelength is indicated by the Greek symbol called Lambda. (λ).