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Introduction to Vacuum Physics

Meaning of vacuum in Physics is nothing but the absence of matter. Also, we can elaborate on the term ‘vacuum’ as a space devoid of matter. 


The vacuum is the word that comes out of the Latin adjective ‘vacuus’. It stands for "vacant" or "void". Vacuum meaning in Physics is that it is an area with vaporous pressure. However, this pressure is much lesser than the atmospheric pressure.

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Many times physicists conduct several ideal tests and obtain certain results that would happen in a perfect vacuum condition. Physicists often relate the term vacuum with free space. This article can give you the necessary ideas over Vacuum. 


Vacuum in Physics Meaning

The vacuum is the term that is partially used to refer to an actual, imperfect empty space. This is useful when you conduct an experiment in a laboratory or in space. 


The vacuum has higher usages in engineering and applied physics. There, it is considered as space where the pressure is inferior to atmospheric pressure significantly. Also, a Latin term is called ‘vacuo’ that describes an object bounded by a vacuum.


Vacuum Formula Physics

A partial vacuum is a type that refers to the closure approach of a perfect vacuum. Also, a higher-quality vacuum signifies a lower gas pressure. Let’s consider an example; a traditional vacuum cleaner generates a suction rate that can reduce the air pressure up to 20%. This creates a short-term vacuum in that particular region.


Also, it is possible to generate higher-quality vacuums. Some recent studies in Physics and Chemistry revealed that the ultra-high vacuum chambers can be operational below one trillionth (10−12) of atmospheric pressure (100 nPa).


Some Ideas on Vacuum

In a perfect vacuum, you will notice that the pressure is 0 Pa abs, or 0 psia, or 0 torr. Different vacuum levels are given under certain atmospheric conditions.

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  • 0% vacuum = 14.7 psia = 760 torr = 101.4 kPa abs = 29.92 inc mercury abs

  • 50% vacuum = 7.3 psia = 380 torr = 50.8 kPa abs = 15 inc mercury abs

  • 99.9% vacuum = 0.01934 psia = 1 torr = 1.3 kPa abs = 0.03937 inc mercury abs

Ranges of Vacuum

Here are some examples associated with Vacuum Chamber Physics 

  1. Perfect vacuum = 0 torr

  2. Low vacuum = 760 to 25 torr

  3. Atmospheric pressure = 760 torr

  4. High vacuum = 10-3 to 10-9 torr

  5. Medium vacuum = 25 to 10-3 torr

  6. Extremely high vacuum = greater than 10-12 torr

  7. Ultra-high vacuum = 10-9 to 10-12 torr

The vacuum can go up to such an extent that it will be 100 particles/cm3. A Higher-quality vacuum is also seen in outer space where vacuum is equivalent to a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. We can calculate the vacuum on an average in this intergalactic space. 


The vacuum has its importance in the philosophical debate. It has been under discussion since ancient Greek times. However, nobody was that sure, and the truth remains hidden until the 17th century. 


In 1643, Evangelista Torricelli was the first person to produce a vacuum for the first time in a laboratory. Later on, numerous methods were found and experimentally conducted with decent techniques. They all showed the same result of his theories on atmospheric pressure. 


Vacuum Physics and Technology

The creation of a Torricellian vacuum can be accomplished when you fill the container of glass bounded at one end with mercury. After that, invert it into a bowl.  This will help you to contain the mercury.


In the 20th century, Vacuum found its purpose of higher industrial demand.  This was first introduced to mankind with the application of incandescent light bulbs and vacuum tubes.


Also, a wide array of vacuum technologies was being arranged and developed for different types of industrial usage. The invention of human spaceflight, human life, human health, all types of agendas have been raised that initiate the higher impact on the vacuum in general.


Vacuum Chamber

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A vacuum chamber is something that contains a rigid enclosure. Out of this container, no other air or any outside gas can be eliminated by a vacuum pump. This behavior promotes a low-pressure environment within the chamber. We commonly term it as a vacuum. 


Physical experiments can be smoother and more genuine under certain conditions. A vacuum environment is necessary for the researchers as it allows them to run some tests and perform some experiments with the mechanical devices. 


Vacuum chambers are operational in outer spaces. They are also useful for the processes such as vacuum coating or vacuum drying. Vacuum chambers are characteristically prepared by metals. Sometimes it may or may not protect applied external magnetic fields. 


These situations rely on the wall frequency, thickness, permeability, and resistivity of the manufacturing material. Only a few materials are useful to be part of the construction of a vacuum chamber.


Fun Facts About Vacuum

Researchers, engineers, scientists and many Physicists from all over the world have contributed to the development and foundation of vacuum science & technology. Starting from the invention of electron spectroscopy to vacuum pumps, many untold stories can be highlighted. 


Some scientific inventions are: Mercury filled glass tube (barometer) by Torricelli, Automatically reading gauge by Pirani, Cleaning effect by Clausing, and so forth.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. How Do You Elaborate on the Force of a Vacuum?

Ans: Casimir effect is the source that results out of the force present inside the vacuum. The force is microscopically small. The force of attraction weaker in vacuum conditions. It is not that significant inside the vacuum chamber.

Q2. Introduce Perfect Vacuum within Two to Three Lines.

Ans: Vacuum is a type of pressure that is lesser than the atmospheric pressure of the earth. The definition of a perfect vacuum is a space where all types of gases won’t be part of the chamber. Vacuum signifies the term called “almost no matter”.

Q3. Is it Possible to Produce a Perfect Vacuum?

Ans: Theoretically, it can be said; however, it is not possible in practical applications. A perfect vacuum is a region where no matter should exist inside that confined boundary. So, even if you drain out the air, the container will still radiate photons.

Q4. Why is Space Considered as the Vacuum?

Ans: Space is denoted as a vacuum, as the word ‘vacuum’ signifies empty space. Our universe has emptiness. Space is used to elaborate the emptiness, and it is scientifically proven that space has no matter. 

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