Fluid friction is a force that restricts the movement either within itself or of another medium moving through the liquid. Due to the movement of the molecules inside the fluid, internal friction occurs, and how the fluid interacts with other matter, external conflict occurs. It describes the friction between the layers of the viscous liquid that moves relative to each other. The internal resistance to flow is termed as viscosity. The less-dense the fluid, the greater is the ease for movement or frictional force. Fluid friction is mostly used in water slides so that we can prompt or slide down gently.
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State the Law of Fluid Friction
The laws of fluid friction are:
The rules hold differently for different lubricants.
It is indirectly proportional to the temperature of the lubricant.
The friction force is independent of the substances of the bearing surfaces as well as the load.
What are the Five Examples of Fluid Friction?
Some of the examples of fluid friction are:
The air particles that form up the air. It causes a falling object to slow down.
The lubricants used in hinges.
Submarine moving through water. It is external fluid friction that occurs on it.
When you drop any object in a fluid, the extent of its splash depends on its fluid friction.
The viscosity of honey is another type of example of fluid friction.
Types of Friction
There are five different types of friction:
It restricts the motion of two concrete surfaces in contact.
It resists the movement of viscous fluids relative to each other.
It separates two solid surfaces by a lubricant fluid.
It is a drag component, resisting the movement of fluid against the surface of the body
What are the Factors Affecting Fluid Friction?
The factors on which fluid friction depends are as follows:
The Speed of the Body:
Speed and friction are directly proportional to each other. The more the rate will be, the more the drag will be. For instance, a body moving with higher velocity will have more drag then a body moving with comparatively lesser speed.
Nature of the Fluid:
The thinner the fluid, the lesser the fluid friction will be, and vice versa. For instance, water is thinner than honey. That is why there is less fluid friction in water than honey.
The Viscosity of Fluid:
Fluid friction is directly proportional to the thickness of the liquid. The more the density, the more the drag will be.
The Shape of the Body:
Other figures feel more drag than the body with a streamlined shape which begins and ends in points like the shape of a fish.
It is directly proportional to the fluid friction. Hence, with an increase in temperature, the fluid friction increases.
The Surface Area of the Body:
The size of the body which faces the fluid should be as less as possible to feel less drag and so that it can cut through the fluid easily. For instance, a horizontal moving body can cut through the liquid more easily than a body moving vertically.
Give a reason why objects must have unique shapes to move in fluids.
According to the laws of fluid friction, it is directly proportional to the shape of an object. In order to reduce fluid friction, special forms have been designed to minimize the opposing frictional force acting on them. These unique shapes are termed as streamlined shapes which are pointed at the ends, to cut the fluid smoothly.
What is a Viscous Drag?
Viscosity is defined as “resistance to flow”. Let’s consider pipe flow for the sake of illustrating an example. In fluid mechanics, any fluid directly in contact with a different medium moves at the same speed as that medium ). In the case of pipe flow, the tube is stationary, yielding a fluid velocity along the pipe walls of zero. The fluid velocity gradually increases with increasing distance from the pipe wall towards the center of the pipe, at which the rate is at maximum.
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So, since the flow velocity is 0 at the pipe wall, and V at the center of the flow, there must be some force holding it back, right? That’s viscous drag in action, the magnitude of which determines how much energy is required to maintain a given flow rate.
Fluid Friction - Law, Examples, Types, Factors Affecting and Solved Examples.
The conflict and the friction that is found in between the layers of a viscous fluid is Fluid Friction. Internal friction occurs due to movement of molecules that are inside the fluid and Viscosity is the internal resistance flow, commonly known as the ‘thickness’ of a fluid. External conflict happens when we see how the fluids interact with one another.
Fiction can be of several types:
Dry friction resists the motion of two solid surfaces which come into contact.
Fluid friction occurs between the layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.
Lubricated friction When a lubricant fluid separates two solid surfaces, it is said to be a case of Lubricated friction.
Skin friction is a component of drag, and is when a force is trying to resist the motion of a fluid across the whole body surface.
Internal friction is the force which, while going through deformation, tries to resist the motion between the elements that make up a solid material while it undergoes deformation.
There are some factors that affect Fluid Friction
Object Design - Objects with a particular and specific design are helpful in order to be able to reduce the friction by allowing fluid molecules to travel through the body of the objects. Take the example of fish - for the fish to swim , they have a specific and streamlined body.
Object Speed - The higher the speed of the object, the greater will be the friction. Friction and Speed are directly proportional to one another . A body that moves with a higher velocity will definitely have more drag than a body which moves slowly, and has a reduced speed.
Object Size - If the object is large, the resistive force will be greater. A blue whale will encounter more friction when it is compared to a man swimming.
Fluid Nature - Fluids which seem to have a high inner resistance are said to have lots of fluid friction. Things, when dipped in honey, have a harder time flowing through it than water since honey is much thicker than water.