The position of each element in the periodic table gives important information about the structure of the elements, its properties, and behavior in the chemical reactions.
The Ernest Rutherford discovered nucleus in the year 1911, a physicist from New Zealand, who in 1920 gave the name proton for the positively charged particles of the atom. Rutherford also said that there was also a neutral particle within the nucleus, which James Chadwick, a British physicist, was able to prove in 1932.
Protons are positively charged particles seen within atomic nuclei. Rutherford saw them in experiments with cathode-ray tubes experiment between 1911 and 1919. Protons are somewhat smaller in mass than neutrons with a relative mass of 0.9986 such that as compared with the mass of the neutron being 1 or about 1.673x10-27 kg.
Electrons are small compared to protons and neutrons, over 1,800 times less than either a proton or a neutron. Electrons have a relative mass of 0.0005439 such that the electron is compared with the mass of a neutron being one or about 9.109x10-31 kg.
The neutron is used as a comparison to detect the relative mass of protons and electrons such that, so it has a relative mass of 1 and has a physical mass of 1.6749x10-27 kg.
Electron spin is a quantum feature of electrons. It is a kind of angular momentum. The magnitude value of this angular momentum is permanent. Like charge and rest mass, spin is a basic, unvarying property of the electron.
Electron spin and the electron spin quantum number are usually treated as one and the same thing. The electron spin and the electron spin quantum number are quantum numbers. They are in fact different, but nearly related concepts. Electron spin is denoted by a symbol ‘s’ and the electron spin quantum number is denoted by a symbol ‘ms’.