Basic Laws of Physics

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Laws of Physics

Laws of Physics have a huge impact to state the facts. These laws are derived and proved through empirical observations. Everything that prevails around us have some connection with Physics.

Physicists have derived many laws with proof to illustrate these facts. In other words, the laws of Physics are the kind of explanation that classifies all physical phenomena.

Most of the laws of Physics are not that easy to derive. To explain some facts will take time to prove and convince the world that it is a fact. All scientific researchers are dedicatedly working to establish a law. All these laws given by physicists are under continuous observation by the scientific community and are updated from time to time.

Physicists have explained so many facts in the form of laws to state the phenomena happening around the universe. Here, you will find a brief knowledge of some basic laws of physics and know all about these.

State Hooke's Law

Hooke’s law states that, within the elastic extent of a material, the material’s strain is proportional to the material’s stress. The atoms and molecules get a deformation of an elastic material when it gets stretched. It stays in a stretched state for the total time of application of stress. When stress gets removed, they go back to their normal form.

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F = – k. x

Here, F = Force

x = Extended length

k = Spring constant or constant of proportionality

Snell's Law of Refraction

This law states the connection between the angle of incidence and angle of refraction.

Here is the Snell’s law of refraction:


Gas Laws Physics

Under this section, there are three more laws; such as:

  1. Boyle’s Law

  2. Charles’s Law

  3. Avogadro’s Law

Also, ideal gas law is another part of the gas laws in Physics. These are as follows:

  • Boyle’s law = PV = k

  • Charles’s law = V/T = k

  • Avogadro’s law = \[\frac{V_1}{n_1}\] = \[\frac{V_2}{n_2}\]

  • Ideal gas law = PV = nRT

Law of Conservation of Energy

This law explains that energy can’t be created and can’t be destroyed. The only possibility is that the energy always changes its state from one to another.

When a system is a closed one, the conservation of energy takes place.

We can calculate a system’s total energy as:

UT = Ui + W + Q


Q = Heat

W = Work

UT = Total Conservation of Energy

3 Law of Thermodynamics

The three laws of thermodynamics are mentioned below. 

  1. The First Law of Thermodynamics

  2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

  3. The Third Law of Thermodynamics

Also, another law is associated with thermodynamics known as the Zeroth law of thermodynamics.

Three Laws of Motion by Newton

Newton also stated three laws of motion. They are known as the first, second, and third law of motion. 

First Law: It states that a body at uniform motion or rest will remain in its original state until and unless an external force applies to it.

Second Law: In short, force is directly proportional to the product of the mass of the body and its acceleration.

Third Law: There is an identical and reverse reaction for every action.

Law of Electrostatics

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Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is the important law of electrostatics. It states that a force F is developed when two different charges  q1 and q2 are placed together with some distance d in between them.

The mathematical derivation is:

F = \[\frac{1}{4πξ_{0}}\frac{qQ}{r^{2}}\] = ke\[\frac{qQ}{r^{2}}\]

or, we can write it simply as:

F = \[k\frac{q_{1}q_{2}}{d_2}\]

List of All Physics Laws PDF

Here is the list of all Fundamental Laws of Physics:

  1. Lambert's Cosine Law

  2. Kelvin Planck Statement

  3. D'alembert's Principle

  4. Clausius Statement

  5. Law of Conservation of Mass

  6. Fourier's Law

  7. Hubble’s Law

  8. Bell's Theorem

  9. Boltzmann Equation

  10. Lagrangian Point

  11. Beer-Lambert Law

  12. Maxwell Relations

  13. Van Der Waals Equation

  14. Carnot’s Theorem

  15. Fermi Paradox

  16. Helmholtz Equation

  17. Helmholtz Free Energy

  18. Ficks Law of Diffusion

  19. Raman Scattering

  20. Wien's Law

  21. Dirac Equation

  22. Mach Number

  23. Coulomb’s Law

  24. Avogadro’s Hypothesis

  25. Law of Conservation of Energy

  26. Archimedes’ Principle

  27. Biot-Savart Law

  28. Faraday’s Law

  29. Ampere’s Law

  30. Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis

  31. Planck Equation

  32. Kirchhoff’s law

  33. Kirchhoff's Second Law

  34. Newton’s law of universal gravitation

  35. Maxwell’s Equations

  36. Bernoulli’s Principle

  37. Electric Potential due to a point charge

  38. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

  39. Gauss’ Law

  40. The first law of thermodynamics

  41. Lenz’s Law

  42. Wien's Displacement Law

  43. Ohm’s Law

  44. Law of Equipartition of Energy

  45. Joule’s Laws

  46. Laws of reflection

  47. Brewster’s law

  48. Radioactive Decay Law

  49. Bragg’s Law

  50. Murphy’s Law

  51. Doppler Effect

  52. Einstein Field Equation

  53. Casimir Effect

  54. Stefan-Boltzmann Law

  55. Moseley’s Law

  56. Superposition Principle

  57. Newton’s Laws of Motion

  58. Laws of Thermodynamics

  59. Laws of Friction

  60. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. To displace a spring for 5 cm from its original state, about 500N force is required. If The force is constant on the spring to make it stable, then calculate the spring constant of the spring.

Ans: The distance should be converted into the meter from centimeter.

5 cm = 0.05 m

According to Hooke’s law:

F = – k.x

In the above expression, the negative sign should be removed as we are only dealing with the magnitude of spring constant.

So, k = 500 N/0.05 m = 1000 N/m

Q2. What do you mean by the Law of Vibration?

Ans: Among all laws that exist in the universe, the law of vibration is also a basic law. It states that we are in an ocean of motion. Everything is in motion, and nothing is at rest in this universe.

Q3. Explain about the Acceleration of Gravity.

Ans: An invisible force that acts on everything that stays on earth is known as acceleration due to gravity. When we toss a coin, it comes back to us with some acceleration. This is due to the acceleration of gravity. 

The value of acceleration due to gravity is found to be 9.807 m/s².

Q4. How do you explain Ohm’s Law?

Ans: Ohm’s law explains that the current (I), which flows through a circuit is directly proportional to its potential difference(V). It also says that the current is inversely proportional to the circuit’s resistance (R). 


V = I * R

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